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"photo": models, code, and papers

Reverse Engineering of Generative Models: Inferring Model Hyperparameters from Generated Images

Jun 15, 2021
Vishal Asnani, Xi Yin, Tal Hassner, Xiaoming Liu

State-of-the-art (SOTA) Generative Models (GMs) can synthesize photo-realistic images that are hard for humans to distinguish from genuine photos. We propose to perform reverse engineering of GMs to infer the model hyperparameters from the images generated by these models. We define a novel problem, "model parsing", as estimating GM network architectures and training loss functions by examining their generated images -- a task seemingly impossible for human beings. To tackle this problem, we propose a framework with two components: a Fingerprint Estimation Network (FEN), which estimates a GM fingerprint from a generated image by training with four constraints to encourage the fingerprint to have desired properties, and a Parsing Network (PN), which predicts network architecture and loss functions from the estimated fingerprints. To evaluate our approach, we collect a fake image dataset with $100$K images generated by $100$ GMs. Extensive experiments show encouraging results in parsing the hyperparameters of the unseen models. Finally, our fingerprint estimation can be leveraged for deepfake detection and image attribution, as we show by reporting SOTA results on both the recent Celeb-DF and image attribution benchmarks.

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Enjoy Your Editing: Controllable GANs for Image Editing via Latent Space Navigation

Feb 03, 2021
Peiye Zhuang, Oluwasanmi Koyejo, Alexander G. Schwing

Controllable semantic image editing enables a user to change entire image attributes with few clicks, e.g., gradually making a summer scene look like it was taken in winter. Classic approaches for this task use a Generative Adversarial Net (GAN) to learn a latent space and suitable latent-space transformations. However, current approaches often suffer from attribute edits that are entangled, global image identity changes, and diminished photo-realism. To address these concerns, we learn multiple attribute transformations simultaneously, we integrate attribute regression into the training of transformation functions, apply a content loss and an adversarial loss that encourage the maintenance of image identity and photo-realism. We propose quantitative evaluation strategies for measuring controllable editing performance, unlike prior work which primarily focuses on qualitative evaluation. Our model permits better control for both single- and multiple-attribute editing, while also preserving image identity and realism during transformation. We provide empirical results for both real and synthetic images, highlighting that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance for targeted image manipulation.

* Accepted to ICLR 2021. 14 pages, 15 figures 
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Shared Representation Learning for Heterogeneous Face Recognition

Jun 05, 2014
Dong Yi, Zhen Lei, Shengcai Liao, Stan Z. Li

After intensive research, heterogenous face recognition is still a challenging problem. The main difficulties are owing to the complex relationship between heterogenous face image spaces. The heterogeneity is always tightly coupled with other variations, which makes the relationship of heterogenous face images highly nonlinear. Many excellent methods have been proposed to model the nonlinear relationship, but they apt to overfit to the training set, due to limited samples. Inspired by the unsupervised algorithms in deep learning, this paper proposes an novel framework for heterogeneous face recognition. We first extract Gabor features at some localized facial points, and then use Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) to learn a shared representation locally to remove the heterogeneity around each facial point. Finally, the shared representations of local RBMs are connected together and processed by PCA. Two problems (Sketch-Photo and NIR-VIS) and three databases are selected to evaluate the proposed method. For Sketch-Photo problem, we obtain perfect results on the CUFS database. For NIR-VIS problem, we produce new state-of-the-art performance on the CASIA HFB and NIR-VIS 2.0 databases.

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The Met Dataset: Instance-level Recognition for Artworks

Feb 03, 2022
Nikolaos-Antonios Ypsilantis, Noa Garcia, Guangxing Han, Sarah Ibrahimi, Nanne Van Noord, Giorgos Tolias

This work introduces a dataset for large-scale instance-level recognition in the domain of artworks. The proposed benchmark exhibits a number of different challenges such as large inter-class similarity, long tail distribution, and many classes. We rely on the open access collection of The Met museum to form a large training set of about 224k classes, where each class corresponds to a museum exhibit with photos taken under studio conditions. Testing is primarily performed on photos taken by museum guests depicting exhibits, which introduces a distribution shift between training and testing. Testing is additionally performed on a set of images not related to Met exhibits making the task resemble an out-of-distribution detection problem. The proposed benchmark follows the paradigm of other recent datasets for instance-level recognition on different domains to encourage research on domain independent approaches. A number of suitable approaches are evaluated to offer a testbed for future comparisons. Self-supervised and supervised contrastive learning are effectively combined to train the backbone which is used for non-parametric classification that is shown as a promising direction. Dataset webpage:

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Structure-Aware Flow Generation for Human Body Reshaping

Mar 11, 2022
Jianqiang Ren, Yuan Yao, Biwen Lei, Miaomiao Cui, Xuansong Xie

Body reshaping is an important procedure in portrait photo retouching. Due to the complicated structure and multifarious appearance of human bodies, existing methods either fall back on the 3D domain via body morphable model or resort to keypoint-based image deformation, leading to inefficiency and unsatisfied visual quality. In this paper, we address these limitations by formulating an end-to-end flow generation architecture under the guidance of body structural priors, including skeletons and Part Affinity Fields, and achieve unprecedentedly controllable performance under arbitrary poses and garments. A compositional attention mechanism is introduced for capturing both visual perceptual correlations and structural associations of the human body to reinforce the manipulation consistency among related parts. For a comprehensive evaluation, we construct the first large-scale body reshaping dataset, namely BR-5K, which contains 5,000 portrait photos as well as professionally retouched targets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of visual performance, controllability, and efficiency. The dataset is available at our website:

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img2pose: Face Alignment and Detection via 6DoF, Face Pose Estimation

Dec 14, 2020
Vitor Albiero, Xingyu Chen, Xi Yin, Guan Pang, Tal Hassner

We propose real-time, six degrees of freedom (6DoF), 3D face pose estimation without face detection or landmark localization. We observe that estimating the 6DoF rigid transformation of a face is a simpler problem than facial landmark detection, often used for 3D face alignment. In addition, 6DoF offers more information than face bounding box labels. We leverage these observations to make multiple contributions: (a) We describe an easily trained, efficient, Faster R-CNN--based model which regresses 6DoF pose for all faces in the photo, without preliminary face detection. (b) We explain how pose is converted and kept consistent between the input photo and arbitrary crops created while training and evaluating our model. (c) Finally, we show how face poses can replace detection bounding box training labels. Tests on AFLW2000-3D and BIWI show that our method runs at real-time and outperforms state of the art (SotA) face pose estimators. Remarkably, our method also surpasses SotA models of comparable complexity on the WIDER FACE detection benchmark, despite not been optimized on bounding box labels.

* Joint first authorship: Vitor Albiero and Xingyu Chen 
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Intrinsic Autoencoders for Joint Neural Rendering and Intrinsic Image Decomposition

Jul 01, 2020
Hassan Abu Alhaija, Siva Karthik Mustikovela, Justus Thies, Varun Jampani, Matthias Nießner, Andreas Geiger, Carsten Rother

Neural rendering techniques promise efficient photo-realistic image synthesis while at the same time providing rich control over scene parameters by learning the physical image formation process. While several supervised methods have been proposed for this task, acquiring a dataset of images with accurately aligned 3D models is very difficult. The main contribution of this work is to lift this restriction by training a neural rendering algorithm from unpaired data. More specifically, we propose an autoencoder for joint generation of realistic images from synthetic 3D models while simultaneously decomposing real images into their intrinsic shape and appearance properties. In contrast to a traditional graphics pipeline, our approach does not require to specify all scene properties, such as material parameters and lighting by hand. Instead, we learn photo-realistic deferred rendering from a small set of 3D models and a larger set of unaligned real images, both of which are easy to acquire in practice. Simultaneously, we obtain accurate intrinsic decompositions of real images while not requiring paired ground truth. Our experiments confirm that a joint treatment of rendering and decomposition is indeed beneficial and that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art image-to-image translation baselines both qualitatively and quantitatively.

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