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"music generation": models, code, and papers

Online Game Level Generation from Music

Jul 12, 2022
Ziqi Wang, Jialin Liu

Game consists of multiple types of content, while the harmony of different content types play an essential role in game design. However, most works on procedural content generation consider only one type of content at a time. In this paper, we propose and formulate online level generation from music, in a way of matching a level feature to a music feature in real-time, while adapting to players' play speed. A generic framework named online player-adaptive procedural content generation via reinforcement learning, OPARL for short, is built upon the experience-driven reinforcement learning and controllable reinforcement learning, to enable online level generation from music. Furthermore, a novel control policy based on local search and k-nearest neighbours is proposed and integrated into OPARL to control the level generator considering the play data collected online. Results of simulation-based experiments show that our implementation of OPARL is competent to generate playable levels with difficulty degree matched to the ``energy'' dynamic of music for different artificial players in an online fashion.


PopMAG: Pop Music Accompaniment Generation

Aug 18, 2020
Yi Ren, Jinzheng He, Xu Tan, Tao Qin, Zhou Zhao, Tie-Yan Liu

In pop music, accompaniments are usually played by multiple instruments (tracks) such as drum, bass, string and guitar, and can make a song more expressive and contagious by arranging together with its melody. Previous works usually generate multiple tracks separately and the music notes from different tracks not explicitly depend on each other, which hurts the harmony modeling. To improve harmony, in this paper, we propose a novel MUlti-track MIDI representation (MuMIDI), which enables simultaneous multi-track generation in a single sequence and explicitly models the dependency of the notes from different tracks. While this greatly improves harmony, unfortunately, it enlarges the sequence length and brings the new challenge of long-term music modeling. We further introduce two new techniques to address this challenge: 1) We model multiple note attributes (e.g., pitch, duration, velocity) of a musical note in one step instead of multiple steps, which can shorten the length of a MuMIDI sequence. 2) We introduce extra long-context as memory to capture long-term dependency in music. We call our system for pop music accompaniment generation as PopMAG. We evaluate PopMAG on multiple datasets (LMD, FreeMidi and CPMD, a private dataset of Chinese pop songs) with both subjective and objective metrics. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of PopMAG for multi-track harmony modeling and long-term context modeling. Specifically, PopMAG wins 42\%/38\%/40\% votes when comparing with ground truth musical pieces on LMD, FreeMidi and CPMD datasets respectively and largely outperforms other state-of-the-art music accompaniment generation models and multi-track MIDI representations in terms of subjective and objective metrics.

* Accepted by ACM-MM 2020 

FIGARO: Generating Symbolic Music with Fine-Grained Artistic Control

Feb 01, 2022
Dimitri von Rütte, Luca Biggio, Yannic Kilcher, Thomas Hofmann

Generating music with deep neural networks has been an area of active research in recent years. While the quality of generated samples has been steadily increasing, most methods are only able to exert minimal control over the generated sequence, if any. We propose the self-supervised description-to-sequence task, which allows for fine-grained controllable generation on a global level. We do so by extracting high-level features about the target sequence and learning the conditional distribution of sequences given the corresponding high-level description in a sequence-to-sequence modelling setup. We train FIGARO (FIne-grained music Generation via Attention-based, RObust control) by applying description-to-sequence modelling to symbolic music. By combining learned high level features with domain knowledge, which acts as a strong inductive bias, the model achieves state-of-the-art results in controllable symbolic music generation and generalizes well beyond the training distribution.

* 14 pages, 9 figures 

Transferring neural speech waveform synthesizers to musical instrument sounds generation

Nov 19, 2019
Yi Zhao, Xin Wang, Lauri Juvela, Junichi Yamagishi

Recent neural waveform synthesizers such as WaveNet, WaveGlow, and the neural-source-filter (NSF) model have shown good performance in speech synthesis despite their different methods of waveform generation. The similarity between speech and music audio synthesis techniques suggests interesting avenues to explore in terms of the best way to apply speech synthesizers in the music domain. This work compares three neural synthesizers used for musical instrument sounds generation under three scenarios: training from scratch on music data, zero-shot learning from the speech domain, and fine-tuning-based adaptation from the speech to the music domain. The results of a large-scale perceptual test demonstrated that the performance of three synthesizers improved when they were pre-trained on speech data and fine-tuned on music data, which indicates the usefulness of knowledge from speech data for music audio generation. Among the synthesizers, WaveGlow showed the best potential in zero-shot learning while NSF performed best in the other scenarios and could generate samples that were perceptually close to natural audio.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2020 

Can GAN originate new electronic dance music genres? -- Generating novel rhythm patterns using GAN with Genre Ambiguity Loss

Nov 25, 2020
Nao Tokui

Since the introduction of deep learning, researchers have proposed content generation systems using deep learning and proved that they are competent to generate convincing content and artistic output, including music. However, one can argue that these deep learning-based systems imitate and reproduce the patterns inherent within what humans have created, instead of generating something new and creative. This paper focuses on music generation, especially rhythm patterns of electronic dance music, and discusses if we can use deep learning to generate novel rhythms, interesting patterns not found in the training dataset. We extend the framework of Generative Adversarial Networks(GAN) and encourage it to diverge from the dataset's inherent distributions by adding additional classifiers to the framework. The paper shows that our proposed GAN can generate rhythm patterns that sound like music rhythms but do not belong to any genres in the training dataset. The source code, generated rhythm patterns, and a supplementary plugin software for a popular Digital Audio Workstation software are available on our website.


Personalized Popular Music Generation Using Imitation and Structure

May 10, 2021
Shuqi Dai, Xichu Ma, Ye Wang, Roger B. Dannenberg

Many practices have been presented in music generation recently. While stylistic music generation using deep learning techniques has became the main stream, these models still struggle to generate music with high musicality, different levels of music structure, and controllability. In addition, more application scenarios such as music therapy require imitating more specific musical styles from a few given music examples, rather than capturing the overall genre style of a large data corpus. To address requirements that challenge current deep learning methods, we propose a statistical machine learning model that is able to capture and imitate the structure, melody, chord, and bass style from a given example seed song. An evaluation using 10 pop songs shows that our new representations and methods are able to create high-quality stylistic music that is similar to a given input song. We also discuss potential uses of our approach in music evaluation and music therapy.

* 26 pages, 12 figures 

Dance Revolution: Long Sequence Dance Generation with Music via Curriculum Learning

Jun 14, 2020
Ruozi Huang, Huang Hu, Wei Wu, Kei Sawada, Mi Zhang

Dancing to music is one of human's innate abilities since ancient times. In artificial intelligence research, however, synthesizing dance movements (complex human motion) from music is a challenging problem, which suffers from the high spatial-temporal complexity in human motion dynamics modeling. Besides, the consistency of dance and music in terms of style, rhythm and beat also needs to be taken into account. Existing works focus on the short-term dance generation with music, e.g. less than 30 seconds. In this paper, we propose a novel seq2seq architecture for long sequence dance generation with music, which consists of a transformer based music encoder and a recurrent structure based dance decoder. By restricting the receptive field of self-attention, our encoder can efficiently process long musical sequences by reducing its quadratic memory requirements to the linear in the sequence length. To further alleviate the error accumulation in human motion synthesis, we introduce a dynamic auto-condition training strategy as a new curriculum learning method to facilitate the long-term dance generation. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed approach significantly outperforms existing methods on both automatic metrics and human evaluation. Additionally, we also make a demo video to exhibit that our approach can generate minute-length dance sequences that are smooth, natural-looking, diverse, style-consistent and beat-matching with the music. The demo video is now available at

* Submitted to NeurIPS 2020