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"facial recognition": models, code, and papers

Multi-spectral Facial Landmark Detection

Jun 09, 2020
Jin Keong, Xingbo Dong, Zhe Jin, Khawla Mallat, Jean-Luc Dugelay

Thermal face image analysis is favorable for certain circumstances. For example, illumination-sensitive applications, like nighttime surveillance; and privacy-preserving demanded access control. However, the inadequate study on thermal face image analysis calls for attention in responding to the industry requirements. Detecting facial landmark points are important for many face analysis tasks, such as face recognition, 3D face reconstruction, and face expression recognition. In this paper, we propose a robust neural network enabled facial landmark detection, namely Deep Multi-Spectral Learning (DMSL). Briefly, DMSL consists of two sub-models, i.e. face boundary detection, and landmark coordinates detection. Such an architecture demonstrates the capability of detecting the facial landmarks on both visible and thermal images. Particularly, the proposed DMSL model is robust in facial landmark detection where the face is partially occluded, or facing different directions. The experiment conducted on Eurecom's visible and thermal paired database shows the superior performance of DMSL over the state-of-the-art for thermal facial landmark detection. In addition to that, we have annotated a thermal face dataset with their respective facial landmark for the purpose of experimentation.


Implementation of Robust Face Recognition System Using Live Video Feed Based on CNN

Nov 18, 2018
Yang Li, Sangwhan Cha

The way to accurately and effectively identify people has always been an interesting topic in research and industry. With the rapid development of artificial intelligence in recent years, facial recognition gains lots of attention due to prompting the development of emerging identification methods. Compared to traditional card recognition, fingerprint recognition and iris recognition, face recognition has many advantages including non-contact interface, high concurrency, and user-friendly usage. It has high potential to be used in government, public facilities, security, e-commerce, retailing, education and many other fields. With the development of deep learning and the introduction of deep convolutional neural networks, the accuracy and speed of face recognition have made great strides. However, the results from different networks and models are very different with different system architecture. Furthermore, it could take significant amount of data storage space and data processing time for the face recognition system with video feed, if the system stores images and features of human faces. In this paper, facial features are extracted by merging and comparing multiple models, and then a deep neural network is constructed to train and construct the combined features. In this way, the advantages of multiple models can be combined to mention the recognition accuracy. After getting a model with high accuracy, we build a product model. The model will take a human face image and extract it into a vector. Then the distance between vectors are compared to determine if two faces on different picture belongs to the same person. The proposed approach reduces data storage space and data processing time for the face recognition system with video feed scientifically with our proposed system architecture.


An EEG-Based Multi-Modal Emotion Database with Both Posed and Authentic Facial Actions for Emotion Analysis

Mar 29, 2022
Xiaotian Li, Xiang Zhang, Huiyuan Yang, Wenna Duan, Weiying Dai, Lijun Yin

Emotion is an experience associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity along with different physiological, behavioral and cognitive changes. One behavioral change is facial expression, which has been studied extensively over the past few decades. Facial behavior varies with a person's emotion according to differences in terms of culture, personality, age, context, and environment. In recent years, physiological activities have been used to study emotional responses. A typical signal is the electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures brain activity. Most of existing EEG-based emotion analysis has overlooked the role of facial expression changes. There exits little research on the relationship between facial behavior and brain signals due to the lack of dataset measuring both EEG and facial action signals simultaneously. To address this problem, we propose to develop a new database by collecting facial expressions, action units, and EEGs simultaneously. We recorded the EEGs and face videos of both posed facial actions and spontaneous expressions from 29 participants with different ages, genders, ethnic backgrounds. Differing from existing approaches, we designed a protocol to capture the EEG signals by evoking participants' individual action units explicitly. We also investigated the relation between the EEG signals and facial action units. As a baseline, the database has been evaluated through the experiments on both posed and spontaneous emotion recognition with images alone, EEG alone, and EEG fused with images, respectively. The database will be released to the research community to advance the state of the art for automatic emotion recognition.

* FG2021(long Oral) 

Local Gradient Hexa Pattern: A Descriptor for Face Recognition and Retrieval

Jan 03, 2022
Soumendu Chakraborty, Satish Kumar Singh, Pavan Chakraborty

Local descriptors used in face recognition are robust in a sense that these descriptors perform well in varying pose, illumination and lighting conditions. Accuracy of these descriptors depends on the precision of mapping the relationship that exists in the local neighborhood of a facial image into microstructures. In this paper a local gradient hexa pattern (LGHP) is proposed that identifies the relationship amongst the reference pixel and its neighboring pixels at different distances across different derivative directions. Discriminative information exists in the local neighborhood as well as in different derivative directions. Proposed descriptor effectively transforms these relationships into binary micropatterns discriminating interclass facial images with optimal precision. Recognition and retrieval performance of the proposed descriptor has been compared with state-of-the-art descriptors namely LDP and LVP over the most challenging and benchmark facial image databases, i.e. Cropped Extended Yale-B, CMU-PIE, color-FERET, and LFW. The proposed descriptor has better recognition as well as retrieval rates compared to state-of-the-art descriptors.

* IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol-28, no-1, pp. 171-180, (2018). ISSN/ISBN: 1051-8215 

Face Recognition Machine Vision System Using Eigenfaces

May 08, 2017
Fares Jalled

Face Recognition is a common problem in Machine Learning. This technology has already been widely used in our lives. For example, Facebook can automatically tag people's faces in images, and also some mobile devices use face recognition to protect private security. Face images comes with different background, variant illumination, different facial expression and occlusion. There are a large number of approaches for the face recognition. Different approaches for face recognition have been experimented with specific databases which consist of single type, format and composition of image. Doing so, these approaches don't suit with different face databases. One of the basic face recognition techniques is eigenface which is quite simple, efficient, and yields generally good results in controlled circumstances. So, this paper presents an experimental performance comparison of face recognition using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Normalized Principal Component Analysis (NPCA). The experiments are carried out on the ORL (ATT) and Indian face database (IFD) which contain variability in expression, pose, and facial details. The results obtained for the two methods have been compared by varying the number of training images. MATLAB is used for implementing algorithms also.

* 7 pages, 11 figures 

DeXpression: Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Expression Recognition

Aug 17, 2016
Peter Burkert, Felix Trier, Muhammad Zeshan Afzal, Andreas Dengel, Marcus Liwicki

We propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture for facial expression recognition. The proposed architecture is independent of any hand-crafted feature extraction and performs better than the earlier proposed convolutional neural network based approaches. We visualize the automatically extracted features which have been learned by the network in order to provide a better understanding. The standard datasets, i.e. Extended Cohn-Kanade (CKP) and MMI Facial Expression Databse are used for the quantitative evaluation. On the CKP set the current state of the art approach, using CNNs, achieves an accuracy of 99.2%. For the MMI dataset, currently the best accuracy for emotion recognition is 93.33%. The proposed architecture achieves 99.6% for CKP and 98.63% for MMI, therefore performing better than the state of the art using CNNs. Automatic facial expression recognition has a broad spectrum of applications such as human-computer interaction and safety systems. This is due to the fact that non-verbal cues are important forms of communication and play a pivotal role in interpersonal communication. The performance of the proposed architecture endorses the efficacy and reliable usage of the proposed work for real world applications.

* Under consideration for publication in Pattern Recognition Letters 

Privacy-Preserving Face Recognition with Learnable Privacy Budgets in Frequency Domain

Jul 19, 2022
Jiazhen Ji, Huan Wang, Yuge Huang, Jiaxiang Wu, Xingkun Xu, Shouhong Ding, ShengChuan Zhang, Liujuan Cao, Rongrong Ji

Face recognition technology has been used in many fields due to its high recognition accuracy, including the face unlocking of mobile devices, community access control systems, and city surveillance. As the current high accuracy is guaranteed by very deep network structures, facial images often need to be transmitted to third-party servers with high computational power for inference. However, facial images visually reveal the user's identity information. In this process, both untrusted service providers and malicious users can significantly increase the risk of a personal privacy breach. Current privacy-preserving approaches to face recognition are often accompanied by many side effects, such as a significant increase in inference time or a noticeable decrease in recognition accuracy. This paper proposes a privacy-preserving face recognition method using differential privacy in the frequency domain. Due to the utilization of differential privacy, it offers a guarantee of privacy in theory. Meanwhile, the loss of accuracy is very slight. This method first converts the original image to the frequency domain and removes the direct component termed DC. Then a privacy budget allocation method can be learned based on the loss of the back-end face recognition network within the differential privacy framework. Finally, it adds the corresponding noise to the frequency domain features. Our method performs very well with several classical face recognition test sets according to the extensive experiments.

* ECCV 2022; Code is available at 

To Frontalize or Not To Frontalize: Do We Really Need Elaborate Pre-processing To Improve Face Recognition?

Mar 27, 2018
Sandipan Banerjee, Joel Brogan, Janez Krizaj, Aparna Bharati, Brandon RichardWebster, Vitomir Struc, Patrick Flynn, Walter Scheirer

Face recognition performance has improved remarkably in the last decade. Much of this success can be attributed to the development of deep learning techniques such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). While CNNs have pushed the state-of-the-art forward, their training process requires a large amount of clean and correctly labelled training data. If a CNN is intended to tolerate facial pose, then we face an important question: should this training data be diverse in its pose distribution, or should face images be normalized to a single pose in a pre-processing step? To address this question, we evaluate a number of popular facial landmarking and pose correction algorithms to understand their effect on facial recognition performance. Additionally, we introduce a new, automatic, single-image frontalization scheme that exceeds the performance of current algorithms. CNNs trained using sets of different pre-processing methods are used to extract features from the Point and Shoot Challenge (PaSC) and CMU Multi-PIE datasets. We assert that the subsequent verification and recognition performance serves to quantify the effectiveness of each pose correction scheme.

* Accepted to WACV 2018 - Fixed title to correct working version Code available here: 

An Overview of Facial Micro-Expression Analysis: Data, Methodology and Challenge

Dec 21, 2020
Hong-Xia Xie, Ling Lo, Hong-Han Shuai, Wen-Huang Cheng

Facial micro-expressions indicate brief and subtle facial movements that appear during emotional communication. In comparison to macro-expressions, micro-expressions are more challenging to be analyzed due to the short span of time and the fine-grained changes. In recent years, micro-expression recognition (MER) has drawn much attention because it can benefit a wide range of applications, e.g. police interrogation, clinical diagnosis, depression analysis, and business negotiation. In this survey, we offer a fresh overview to discuss new research directions and challenges these days for MER tasks. For example, we review MER approaches from three novel aspects: macro-to-micro adaptation, recognition based on key apex frames, and recognition based on facial action units. Moreover, to mitigate the problem of limited and biased ME data, synthetic data generation is surveyed for the diversity enrichment of micro-expression data. Since micro-expression spotting can boost micro-expression analysis, the state-of-the-art spotting works are also introduced in this paper. At last, we discuss the challenges in MER research and provide potential solutions as well as possible directions for further investigation.

* 20 pages, 7 figures