To integrate action recognition methods into autonomous robotic systems, it is crucial to consider adverse situations involving target occlusions. Such a scenario, despite its practical relevance, is rarely addressed in existing self-supervised skeleton-based action recognition methods. To empower robots with the capacity to address occlusion, we propose a simple and effective method. We first pre-train using occluded skeleton sequences, then use k-means clustering (KMeans) on sequence embeddings to group semantically similar samples. Next, we employ K-nearest-neighbor (KNN) to fill in missing skeleton data based on the closest sample neighbors. Imputing incomplete skeleton sequences to create relatively complete sequences as input provides significant benefits to existing skeleton-based self-supervised models. Meanwhile, building on the state-of-the-art Partial Spatio-Temporal Learning (PSTL), we introduce an Occluded Partial Spatio-Temporal Learning (OPSTL) framework. This enhancement utilizes Adaptive Spatial Masking (ASM) for better use of high-quality, intact skeletons. The effectiveness of our imputation methods is verified on the challenging occluded versions of the NTURGB+D 60 and NTURGB+D 120. The source code will be made publicly available at https://github.com/cyfml/OPSTL.
Self-supervised representation learning for human action recognition has developed rapidly in recent years. Most of the existing works are based on skeleton data while using a multi-modality setup. These works overlooked the differences in performance among modalities, which led to the propagation of erroneous knowledge between modalities while only three fundamental modalities, i.e., joints, bones, and motions are used, hence no additional modalities are explored. In this work, we first propose an Implicit Knowledge Exchange Module (IKEM) which alleviates the propagation of erroneous knowledge between low-performance modalities. Then, we further propose three new modalities to enrich the complementary information between modalities. Finally, to maintain efficiency when introducing new modalities, we propose a novel teacher-student framework to distill the knowledge from the secondary modalities into the mandatory modalities considering the relationship constrained by anchors, positives, and negatives, named relational cross-modality knowledge distillation. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, unlocking the efficient use of skeleton-based multi-modality data. Source code will be made publicly available at https://github.com/desehuileng0o0/IKEM.
For driver observation frameworks, clean datasets collected in controlled simulated environments often serve as the initial training ground. Yet, when deployed under real driving conditions, such simulator-trained models quickly face the problem of distributional shifts brought about by changing illumination, car model, variations in subject appearances, sensor discrepancies, and other environmental alterations. This paper investigates the viability of transferring video-based driver observation models from simulation to real-world scenarios in autonomous vehicles, given the frequent use of simulation data in this domain due to safety issues. To achieve this, we record a dataset featuring actual autonomous driving conditions and involving seven participants engaged in highly distracting secondary activities. To enable direct SIM to REAL transfer, our dataset was designed in accordance with an existing large-scale simulator dataset used as the training source. We utilize the Inflated 3D ConvNet (I3D) model, a popular choice for driver observation, with Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) for detailed analysis of model decision-making. Though the simulator-based model clearly surpasses the random baseline, its recognition quality diminishes, with average accuracy dropping from 85.7% to 46.6%. We also observe strong variations across different behavior classes. This underscores the challenges of model transferability, facilitating our research of more robust driver observation systems capable of dealing with real driving conditions.
The digitization of documents allows for wider accessibility and reproducibility. While automatic digitization of document layout and text content has been a long-standing focus of research, this problem in regard to graphical elements, such as statistical plots, has been under-explored. In this paper, we introduce the task of fine-grained visual understanding of mathematical graphics and present the Line Graphics (LG) dataset, which includes pixel-wise annotations of 5 coarse and 10 fine-grained categories. Our dataset covers 520 images of mathematical graphics collected from 450 documents from different disciplines. Our proposed dataset can support two different computer vision tasks, i.e., semantic segmentation and object detection. To benchmark our LG dataset, we explore 7 state-of-the-art models. To foster further research on the digitization of statistical graphs, we will make the dataset, code, and models publicly available to the community.
Domain adaptation is essential for activity recognition, as common spatiotemporal architectures risk overfitting due to increased parameters arising from the temporal dimension. Unsupervised domain adaptation methods have been extensively studied, yet, they require large-scale unlabeled data from the target domain. In this work, we address few-shot domain adaptation for video-based activity recognition (FSDA-AR), which leverages a very small amount of labeled target videos to achieve effective adaptation. This setting is attractive and promising for applications, as it requires recording and labeling only a few, or even a single example per class in the target domain, which often includes activities that are rare yet crucial to recognize. We construct FSDA-AR benchmarks using five established datasets: UCF101, HMDB51, EPIC-KITCHEN, Sims4Action, and Toyota Smart Home. Our results demonstrate that FSDA-AR performs comparably to unsupervised domain adaptation with significantly fewer (yet labeled) target examples. We further propose a novel approach, FeatFSDA, to better leverage the few labeled target domain samples as knowledge guidance. FeatFSDA incorporates a latent space semantic adjacency loss, a domain prototypical similarity loss, and a graph-attentive-network-based edge dropout technique. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on all datasets within our FSDA-AR benchmark. To encourage future research of few-shot domain adaptation for video-based activity recognition, we will release our benchmarks and code at https://github.com/KPeng9510/FeatFSDA.
Interactive Image Segmentation (IIS) has emerged as a promising technique for decreasing annotation time. Substantial progress has been made in pre- and post-processing for IIS, but the critical issue of interaction ambiguity notably hindering segmentation quality, has been under-researched. To address this, we introduce AdaptiveClick -- a clicks-aware transformer incorporating an adaptive focal loss, which tackles annotation inconsistencies with tools for mask- and pixel-level ambiguity resolution. To the best of our knowledge, AdaptiveClick is the first transformer-based, mask-adaptive segmentation framework for IIS. The key ingredient of our method is the Clicks-aware Mask-adaptive Transformer Decoder (CAMD), which enhances the interaction between clicks and image features. Additionally, AdaptiveClick enables pixel-adaptive differentiation of hard and easy samples in the decision space, independent of their varying distributions. This is primarily achieved by optimizing a generalized Adaptive Focal Loss (AFL) with a theoretical guarantee, where two adaptive coefficients control the ratio of gradient values for hard and easy pixels. Our analysis reveals that the commonly used Focal and BCE losses can be considered special cases of the proposed AFL loss. With a plain ViT backbone, extensive experimental results on nine datasets demonstrate the superiority of AdaptiveClick compared to state-of-the-art methods. Code will be publicly available at https://github.com/lab206/AdaptiveClick.
This paper raises the new task of Fisheye Semantic Completion (FSC), where dense texture, structure, and semantics of a fisheye image are inferred even beyond the sensor field-of-view (FoV). Fisheye cameras have larger FoV than ordinary pinhole cameras, yet its unique special imaging model naturally leads to a blind area at the edge of the image plane. This is suboptimal for safety-critical applications since important perception tasks, such as semantic segmentation, become very challenging within the blind zone. Previous works considered the out-FoV outpainting and in-FoV segmentation separately. However, we observe that these two tasks are actually closely coupled. To jointly estimate the tightly intertwined complete fisheye image and scene semantics, we introduce the new FishDreamer which relies on successful ViTs enhanced with a novel Polar-aware Cross Attention module (PCA) to leverage dense context and guide semantically-consistent content generation while considering different polar distributions. In addition to the contribution of the novel task and architecture, we also derive Cityscapes-BF and KITTI360-BF datasets to facilitate training and evaluation of this new track. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed FishDreamer outperforms methods solving each task in isolation and surpasses alternative approaches on the Fisheye Semantic Completion. Code and datasets will be available at https://github.com/MasterHow/FishDreamer.
In this paper, we tackle the new task of video-based Activated Muscle Group Estimation (AMGE) aiming at identifying active muscle regions during physical activity. To this intent, we provide the MuscleMap136 dataset featuring >15K video clips with 136 different activities and 20 labeled muscle groups. This dataset opens the vistas to multiple video-based applications in sports and rehabilitation medicine. We further complement the main MuscleMap136 dataset, which specifically targets physical exercise, with Muscle-UCF90 and Muscle-HMDB41, which are new variants of the well-known activity recognition benchmarks extended with AMGE annotations. To make the AMGE model applicable in real-life situations, it is crucial to ensure that the model can generalize well to types of physical activities not present during training and involving new combinations of activated muscles. To achieve this, our benchmark also covers an evaluation setting where the model is exposed to activity types excluded from the training set. Our experiments reveal that generalizability of existing architectures adapted for the AMGE task remains a challenge. Therefore, we also propose a new approach, TransM3E, which employs a transformer-based model with cross-modal multi-label knowledge distillation and surpasses all popular video classification models when dealing with both, previously seen and new types of physical activities. The datasets and code will be publicly available at https://github.com/KPeng9510/MuscleMap.
Modality selection is an important step when designing multimodal systems, especially in the case of cross-domain activity recognition as certain modalities are more robust to domain shift than others. However, selecting only the modalities which have a positive contribution requires a systematic approach. We tackle this problem by proposing an unsupervised modality selection method (ModSelect), which does not require any ground-truth labels. We determine the correlation between the predictions of multiple unimodal classifiers and the domain discrepancy between their embeddings. Then, we systematically compute modality selection thresholds, which select only modalities with a high correlation and low domain discrepancy. We show in our experiments that our method ModSelect chooses only modalities with positive contributions and consistently improves the performance on a Synthetic-to-Real domain adaptation benchmark, narrowing the domain gap.