Familia is an open-source toolkit for pragmatic topic modeling in industry. Familia abstracts the utilities of topic modeling in industry as two paradigms: semantic representation and semantic matching. Efficient implementations of the two paradigms are made publicly available for the first time. Furthermore, we provide off-the-shelf topic models trained on large-scale industrial corpora, including Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), SentenceLDA and Topical Word Embedding (TWE). We further describe typical applications which are successfully powered by topic modeling, in order to ease the confusions and difficulties of software engineers during topic model selection and utilization.
The logistic normal distribution has recently been adapted via the transformation of multivariate Gaus- sian variables to model the topical distribution of documents in the presence of correlations among topics. In this paper, we propose a probit normal alternative approach to modelling correlated topical structures. Our use of the probit model in the context of topic discovery is novel, as many authors have so far con- centrated solely of the logistic model partly due to the formidable inefficiency of the multinomial probit model even in the case of very small topical spaces. We herein circumvent the inefficiency of multinomial probit estimation by using an adaptation of the diagonal orthant multinomial probit in the topic models context, resulting in the ability of our topic modelling scheme to handle corpuses with a large number of latent topics. An additional and very important benefit of our method lies in the fact that unlike with the logistic normal model whose non-conjugacy leads to the need for sophisticated sampling schemes, our ap- proach exploits the natural conjugacy inherent in the auxiliary formulation of the probit model to achieve greater simplicity. The application of our proposed scheme to a well known Associated Press corpus not only helps discover a large number of meaningful topics but also reveals the capturing of compellingly intuitive correlations among certain topics. Besides, our proposed approach lends itself to even further scalability thanks to various existing high performance algorithms and architectures capable of handling millions of documents.
Background: Unstructured and textual data is increasing rapidly and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling is a popular data analysis methods for it. Past work suggests that instability of LDA topics may lead to systematic errors. Aim: We propose a method that relies on replicated LDA runs, clustering, and providing a stability metric for the topics. Method: We generate k LDA topics and replicate this process n times resulting in n*k topics. Then we use K-medioids to cluster the n*k topics to k clusters. The k clusters now represent the original LDA topics and we present them like normal LDA topics showing the ten most probable words. For the clusters, we try multiple stability metrics, out of which we recommend Rank-Biased Overlap, showing the stability of the topics inside the clusters. Results: We provide an initial validation where our method is used for 270,000 Mozilla Firefox commit messages with k=20 and n=20. We show how our topic stability metrics are related to the contents of the topics. Conclusions: Advances in text mining enable us to analyze large masses of text in software engineering but non-deterministic algorithms, such as LDA, may lead to unreplicable conclusions. Our approach makes LDA stability transparent and is also complementary rather than alternative to many prior works that focus on LDA parameter tuning.
This paper proposes the continuous semantic topic embedding model (CSTEM) which finds latent topic variables in documents using continuous semantic distance function between the topics and the words by means of the variational autoencoder(VAE). The semantic distance could be represented by any symmetric bell-shaped geometric distance function on the Euclidean space, for which the Mahalanobis distance is used in this paper. In order for the semantic distance to perform more properly, we newly introduce an additional model parameter for each word to take out the global factor from this distance indicating how likely it occurs regardless of its topic. It certainly improves the problem that the Gaussian distribution which is used in previous topic model with continuous word embedding could not explain the semantic relation correctly and helps to obtain the higher topic coherence. Through the experiments with the dataset of 20 Newsgroup, NIPS papers and CNN/Dailymail corpus, the performance of the recent state-of-the-art models is accomplished by our model as well as generating topic embedding vectors which makes possible to observe where the topic vectors are embedded with the word vectors in the real Euclidean space and how the topics are related each other semantically.
This paper proposes a corpus-based language model for topic identification. We analyze the association of noun-noun and noun-verb pairs in LOB Corpus. The word association norms are based on three factors: 1) word importance, 2) pair co-occurrence, and 3) distance. They are trained on the paragraph and sentence levels for noun-noun and noun-verb pairs, respectively. Under the topic coherence postulation, the nouns that have the strongest connectivities with the other nouns and verbs in the discourse form the preferred topic set. The collocational semantics then is used to identify the topics from paragraphs and to discuss the topic shift phenomenon among paragraphs.
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) based topic modeling methods do not rely on model- or data-assumptions much. However, they are usually formulated as difficult optimization problems, which may suffer from bad local minima and high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a deep NMF (DNMF) topic modeling framework to alleviate the aforementioned problems. It first applies an unsupervised deep learning method to learn latent hierarchical structures of documents, under the assumption that if we could learn a good representation of documents by, e.g. a deep model, then the topic word discovery problem can be boosted. Then, it takes the output of the deep model to constrain a topic-document distribution for the discovery of the discriminant topic words, which not only improves the efficacy but also reduces the computational complexity over conventional unsupervised NMF methods. We constrain the topic-document distribution in three ways, which takes the advantages of the three major sub-categories of NMF -- basic NMF, structured NMF, and constrained NMF respectively. To overcome the weaknesses of deep neural networks in unsupervised topic modeling, we adopt a non-neural-network deep model -- multilayer bootstrap network. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a deep NMF model is used for unsupervised topic modeling. We have compared the proposed method with a number of representative references covering major branches of topic modeling on a variety of real-world text corpora. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method under various evaluation metrics.
Traditional Relational Topic Models provide a way to discover the hidden topics from a document network. Many theoretical and practical tasks, such as dimensional reduction, document clustering, link prediction, benefit from this revealed knowledge. However, existing relational topic models are based on an assumption that the number of hidden topics is known in advance, and this is impractical in many real-world applications. Therefore, in order to relax this assumption, we propose a nonparametric relational topic model in this paper. Instead of using fixed-dimensional probability distributions in its generative model, we use stochastic processes. Specifically, a gamma process is assigned to each document, which represents the topic interest of this document. Although this method provides an elegant solution, it brings additional challenges when mathematically modeling the inherent network structure of typical document network, i.e., two spatially closer documents tend to have more similar topics. Furthermore, we require that the topics are shared by all the documents. In order to resolve these challenges, we use a subsampling strategy to assign each document a different gamma process from the global gamma process, and the subsampling probabilities of documents are assigned with a Markov Random Field constraint that inherits the document network structure. Through the designed posterior inference algorithm, we can discover the hidden topics and its number simultaneously. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world network datasets demonstrate the capabilities of learning the hidden topics and, more importantly, the number of topics.
Electronic health records (EHRs) contain important clinical information about patients. Efficient and effective use of this information could supplement or even replace manual chart review as a means of studying and improving the quality and safety of healthcare delivery. However, some of these clinical data are in the form of free text and require pre-processing before use in automated systems. A common free text data source is radiology reports, typically dictated by radiologists to explain their interpretations. We sought to demonstrate machine learning classification of computed tomography (CT) imaging reports into binary outcomes, i.e. positive and negative for fracture, using regular text classification and classifiers based on topic modeling. Topic modeling provides interpretable themes (topic distributions) in reports, a representation that is more compact than the commonly used bag-of-words representation and can be processed faster than raw text in subsequent automated processes. We demonstrate new classifiers based on this topic modeling representation of the reports. Aggregate topic classifier (ATC) and confidence-based topic classifier (CTC) use a single topic that is determined from the training dataset based on different measures to classify the reports on the test dataset. Alternatively, similarity-based topic classifier (STC) measures the similarity between the reports' topic distributions to determine the predicted class. Our proposed topic modeling-based classifier systems are shown to be competitive with existing text classification techniques and provides an efficient and interpretable representation.
We present a novel method for hierarchical topic detection where topics are obtained by clustering documents in multiple ways. Specifically, we model document collections using a class of graphical models called hierarchical latent tree models (HLTMs). The variables at the bottom level of an HLTM are observed binary variables that represent the presence/absence of words in a document. The variables at other levels are binary latent variables, with those at the lowest latent level representing word co-occurrence patterns and those at higher levels representing co-occurrence of patterns at the level below. Each latent variable gives a soft partition of the documents, and document clusters in the partitions are interpreted as topics. Latent variables at high levels of the hierarchy capture long-range word co-occurrence patterns and hence give thematically more general topics, while those at low levels of the hierarchy capture short-range word co-occurrence patterns and give thematically more specific topics. Unlike LDA-based topic models, HLTMs do not refer to a document generation process and use word variables instead of token variables. They use a tree structure to model the relationships between topics and words, which is conducive to the discovery of meaningful topics and topic hierarchies.
The task of discovering topics in text corpora has been dominated by Latent Dirichlet Allocation and other Topic Models for over a decade. In order to apply these approaches to massive text corpora, the vocabulary needs to be reduced considerably and large computer clusters and/or GPUs are typically required. Moreover, the number of topics must be provided beforehand but this depends on the corpus characteristics and it is often difficult to estimate, especially for massive text corpora. Unfortunately, both topic quality and time complexity are sensitive to this choice. This paper describes an alternative approach to discover topics based on Min-Hashing, which can handle massive text corpora and large vocabularies using modest computer hardware and does not require to fix the number of topics in advance. The basic idea is to generate multiple random partitions of the corpus vocabulary to find sets of highly co-occurring words, which are then clustered to produce the final topics. In contrast to probabilistic topic models where topics are distributions over the complete vocabulary, the topics discovered by the proposed approach are sets of highly co-occurring words. Interestingly, these topics underlie various thematics with different levels of granularity. An extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation using the 20 Newsgroups (18K), Reuters (800K), Spanish Wikipedia (1M), and English Wikipedia (5M) corpora shows that the proposed approach is able to consistently discover meaningful and coherent topics. Remarkably, the time complexity of the proposed approach is linear with respect to corpus and vocabulary size; a non-parallel implementation was able to discover topics from the entire English edition of Wikipedia with over 5 million documents and 1 million words in less than 7 hours.