Speculative decoding enhances the efficiency of large language models (LLMs) by leveraging a draft model to draft for a larger target model to review. However, drafting in speculative decoding involves slow autoregressive generation and generating tokens of different importance with the same time allocation. These two inefficiencies lead to its suboptimal performance. To address this issue, we introduce Cascade Speculative Drafting (CS. Drafting), a novel approach that employs two types of cascades. The Vertical Cascade eliminates autoregressive generation from neural models. The Horizontal Cascade constitutes efficient time allocation in drafting with its optimality supported by our theoretical analysis. Combining both cascades, our CS. Drafting algorithm has achieved up to 72 percent additional speedup over speculative decoding in our experiments while keeping the same output distribution.
Long-form question answering (LFQA) poses a challenge as it involves generating detailed answers in the form of paragraphs, which go beyond simple yes/no responses or short factual answers. While existing QA models excel in questions with concise answers, LFQA requires handling multiple topics and their intricate relationships, demanding comprehensive explanations. Previous attempts at LFQA focused on generating long-form answers by utilizing relevant contexts from a corpus, relying solely on the question itself. However, they overlooked the possibility that the question alone might not provide sufficient information to identify the relevant contexts. Additionally, generating detailed long-form answers often entails aggregating knowledge from diverse sources. To address these limitations, we propose an LFQA model with iterative Planning, Retrieval, and Generation. This iterative process continues until a complete answer is generated for the given question. From an extensive experiment on both an open domain and a technical domain QA dataset, we find that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on various textual and factual metrics for the LFQA task.
Topic models are one of the compelling methods for discovering latent semantics in a document collection. However, it assumes that a document has sufficient co-occurrence information to be effective. However, in short texts, co-occurrence information is minimal, which results in feature sparsity in document representation. Therefore, existing topic models (probabilistic or neural) mostly fail to mine patterns from them to generate coherent topics. In this paper, we take a new approach to short-text topic modeling to address the data-sparsity issue by extending short text into longer sequences using existing pre-trained language models (PLMs). Besides, we provide a simple solution extending a neural topic model to reduce the effect of noisy out-of-topics text generation from PLMs. We observe that our model can substantially improve the performance of short-text topic modeling. Extensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets under extreme data sparsity scenarios show that our models can generate high-quality topics outperforming state-of-the-art models.
Text style transfer is a prominent task that aims to control the style of text without inherently changing its factual content. To cover more text modification applications, such as adapting past news for current events and repurposing educational materials, we propose the task of text fact transfer, which seeks to transfer the factual content of a source text between topics without modifying its style. We find that existing language models struggle with text fact transfer, due to their inability to preserve the specificity and phrasing of the source text, and tendency to hallucinate errors. To address these issues, we design ModQGA, a framework that minimally modifies a source text with a novel combination of end-to-end question generation and specificity-aware question answering. Through experiments on four existing datasets adapted for text fact transfer, we show that ModQGA can accurately transfer factual content without sacrificing the style of the source text.
We introduce a new task called *entity-centric question generation* (ECQG), motivated by real-world applications such as topic-specific learning, assisted reading, and fact-checking. The task aims to generate questions from an entity perspective. To solve ECQG, we propose a coherent PLM-based framework GenCONE with two novel modules: content focusing and question verification. The content focusing module first identifies a focus as "what to ask" to form draft questions, and the question verification module refines the questions afterwards by verifying the answerability. We also construct a large-scale open-domain dataset from SQuAD to support this task. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that GenCONE significantly and consistently outperforms various baselines, and two modules are effective and complementary in generating high-quality questions.
* Accepted to the Findings of EMNLP 2023. Camera-ready version
We present a novel system that automatically extracts and generates informative and descriptive sentences from the biomedical corpus and facilitates the efficient search for relational knowledge. Unlike previous search engines or exploration systems that retrieve unconnected passages, our system organizes descriptive sentences as a relational graph, enabling researchers to explore closely related biomedical entities (e.g., diseases treated by a chemical) or indirectly connected entities (e.g., potential drugs for treating a disease). Our system also uses ChatGPT and a fine-tuned relation synthesis model to generate concise and reliable descriptive sentences from retrieved information, reducing the need for extensive human reading effort. With our system, researchers can easily obtain both high-level knowledge and detailed references and interactively steer to the information of interest. We spotlight the application of our system in COVID-19 research, illustrating its utility in areas such as drug repurposing and literature curation.
With the rapid advancement of large language models (LLMs), there is a pressing need for a comprehensive evaluation suite to assess their capabilities and limitations. Existing LLM leaderboards often reference scores reported in other papers without consistent settings and prompts, which may inadvertently encourage cherry-picking favored settings and prompts for better results. In this work, we introduce GPT-Fathom, an open-source and reproducible LLM evaluation suite built on top of OpenAI Evals. We systematically evaluate 10+ leading LLMs as well as OpenAI's legacy models on 20+ curated benchmarks across 7 capability categories, all under aligned settings. Our retrospective study on OpenAI's earlier models offers valuable insights into the evolutionary path from GPT-3 to GPT-4. Currently, the community is eager to know how GPT-3 progressively improves to GPT-4, including technical details like whether adding code data improves LLM's reasoning capability, which aspects of LLM capability can be improved by SFT and RLHF, how much is the alignment tax, etc. Our analysis sheds light on many of these questions, aiming to improve the transparency of advanced LLMs.
Topic models are popular statistical tools for detecting latent semantic topics in a text corpus. They have been utilized in various applications across different fields. However, traditional topic models have some limitations, including insensitivity to user guidance, sensitivity to the amount and quality of data, and the inability to adapt learned topics from one corpus to another. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a neural topic model, TopicAdapt, that can adapt relevant topics from a related source corpus and also discover new topics in a target corpus that are absent in the source corpus. The proposed model offers a promising approach to improve topic modeling performance in practical scenarios. Experiments over multiple datasets from diverse domains show the superiority of the proposed model against the state-of-the-art topic models.
In this paper, we investigate the in-context learning ability of retrieval-augmented encoder-decoder language models. We first conduct a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-the-art ATLAS model and identify its limitations in in-context learning, primarily due to a mismatch between pretraining and testing, as well as a restricted context length. To address these issues, we propose RAVEN, a model that combines retrieval-augmented masked language modeling and prefix language modeling. We further introduce Fusion-in-Context Learning to enhance the few-shot performance by enabling the model to leverage more in-context examples without requiring additional training or model modifications. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that RAVEN significantly outperforms ATLAS and achieves results comparable to the most advanced language models in certain scenarios, despite having substantially fewer parameters. Our work underscores the potential of retrieval-augmented encoder-decoder language models for in-context learning and encourages further research in this direction.