Customizing robotic behaviors to be aligned with diverse human preferences is an underexplored challenge in the field of embodied AI. In this paper, we present Promptable Behaviors, a novel framework that facilitates efficient personalization of robotic agents to diverse human preferences in complex environments. We use multi-objective reinforcement learning to train a single policy adaptable to a broad spectrum of preferences. We introduce three distinct methods to infer human preferences by leveraging different types of interactions: (1) human demonstrations, (2) preference feedback on trajectory comparisons, and (3) language instructions. We evaluate the proposed method in personalized object-goal navigation and flee navigation tasks in ProcTHOR and RoboTHOR, demonstrating the ability to prompt agent behaviors to satisfy human preferences in various scenarios. Project page: https://promptable-behaviors.github.io
Personalizing text-to-image models using a limited set of images for a specific object has been explored in subject-specific image generation. However, existing methods often encounter challenges in aligning with text prompts due to overfitting to the limited training images. In this work, we introduce InstructBooth, a novel method designed to enhance image-text alignment in personalized text-to-image models. Our approach first personalizes text-to-image models with a small number of subject-specific images using a unique identifier. After personalization, we fine-tune personalized text-to-image models using reinforcement learning to maximize a reward that quantifies image-text alignment. Additionally, we propose complementary techniques to increase the synergy between these two processes. Our method demonstrates superior image-text alignment compared to baselines while maintaining personalization ability. In human evaluations, InstructBooth outperforms DreamBooth when considering all comprehensive factors.
Developing an agent capable of adapting to unseen environments remains a difficult challenge in imitation learning. In this work, we present Adaptive Return-conditioned Policy (ARP), an efficient framework designed to enhance the agent's generalization ability using natural language task descriptions and pre-trained multimodal encoders. Our key idea is to calculate a similarity between visual observations and natural language instructions in the pre-trained multimodal embedding space (such as CLIP) and use it as a reward signal. We then train a return-conditioned policy using expert demonstrations labeled with multimodal rewards. Because the multimodal rewards provide adaptive signals at each timestep, our ARP effectively mitigates the goal misgeneralization. This results in superior generalization performances even when faced with unseen text instructions, compared to existing text-conditioned policies. To improve the quality of rewards, we also introduce a fine-tuning method for pre-trained multimodal encoders, further enhancing the performance. Video demonstrations and source code are available on the project website: https://sites.google.com/view/2023arp.
Pre-trained large text-to-image models synthesize impressive images with an appropriate use of text prompts. However, ambiguities inherent in natural language and out-of-distribution effects make it hard to synthesize image styles, that leverage a specific design pattern, texture or material. In this paper, we introduce StyleDrop, a method that enables the synthesis of images that faithfully follow a specific style using a text-to-image model. The proposed method is extremely versatile and captures nuances and details of a user-provided style, such as color schemes, shading, design patterns, and local and global effects. It efficiently learns a new style by fine-tuning very few trainable parameters (less than $1\%$ of total model parameters) and improving the quality via iterative training with either human or automated feedback. Better yet, StyleDrop is able to deliver impressive results even when the user supplies only a single image that specifies the desired style. An extensive study shows that, for the task of style tuning text-to-image models, StyleDrop implemented on Muse convincingly outperforms other methods, including DreamBooth and textual inversion on Imagen or Stable Diffusion. More results are available at our project website: https://styledrop.github.io
Learning from human feedback has been shown to improve text-to-image models. These techniques first learn a reward function that captures what humans care about in the task and then improve the models based on the learned reward function. Even though relatively simple approaches (e.g., rejection sampling based on reward scores) have been investigated, fine-tuning text-to-image models with the reward function remains challenging. In this work, we propose using online reinforcement learning (RL) to fine-tune text-to-image models. We focus on diffusion models, defining the fine-tuning task as an RL problem, and updating the pre-trained text-to-image diffusion models using policy gradient to maximize the feedback-trained reward. Our approach, coined DPOK, integrates policy optimization with KL regularization. We conduct an analysis of KL regularization for both RL fine-tuning and supervised fine-tuning. In our experiments, we show that DPOK is generally superior to supervised fine-tuning with respect to both image-text alignment and image quality.
Preference-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides a framework to train agents using human preferences between two behaviors. However, preference-based RL has been challenging to scale since it requires a large amount of human feedback to learn a reward function aligned with human intent. In this paper, we present Preference Transformer, a neural architecture that models human preferences using transformers. Unlike prior approaches assuming human judgment is based on the Markovian rewards which contribute to the decision equally, we introduce a new preference model based on the weighted sum of non-Markovian rewards. We then design the proposed preference model using a transformer architecture that stacks causal and bidirectional self-attention layers. We demonstrate that Preference Transformer can solve a variety of control tasks using real human preferences, while prior approaches fail to work. We also show that Preference Transformer can induce a well-specified reward and attend to critical events in the trajectory by automatically capturing the temporal dependencies in human decision-making. Code is available on the project website: https://sites.google.com/view/preference-transformer.
Deep generative models have shown impressive results in text-to-image synthesis. However, current text-to-image models often generate images that are inadequately aligned with text prompts. We propose a fine-tuning method for aligning such models using human feedback, comprising three stages. First, we collect human feedback assessing model output alignment from a set of diverse text prompts. We then use the human-labeled image-text dataset to train a reward function that predicts human feedback. Lastly, the text-to-image model is fine-tuned by maximizing reward-weighted likelihood to improve image-text alignment. Our method generates objects with specified colors, counts and backgrounds more accurately than the pre-trained model. We also analyze several design choices and find that careful investigations on such design choices are important in balancing the alignment-fidelity tradeoffs. Our results demonstrate the potential for learning from human feedback to significantly improve text-to-image models.
One of the key capabilities of intelligent agents is the ability to discover useful skills without external supervision. However, the current unsupervised skill discovery methods are often limited to acquiring simple, easy-to-learn skills due to the lack of incentives to discover more complex, challenging behaviors. We introduce a novel unsupervised skill discovery method, Controllability-aware Skill Discovery (CSD), which actively seeks complex, hard-to-control skills without supervision. The key component of CSD is a controllability-aware distance function, which assigns larger values to state transitions that are harder to achieve with the current skills. Combined with distance-maximizing skill discovery, CSD progressively learns more challenging skills over the course of training as our jointly trained distance function reduces rewards for easy-to-achieve skills. Our experimental results in six robotic manipulation and locomotion environments demonstrate that CSD can discover diverse complex skills including object manipulation and locomotion skills with no supervision, significantly outperforming prior unsupervised skill discovery methods. Videos and code are available at https://seohong.me/projects/csd/
Visual robotic manipulation research and applications often use multiple cameras, or views, to better perceive the world. How else can we utilize the richness of multi-view data? In this paper, we investigate how to learn good representations with multi-view data and utilize them for visual robotic manipulation. Specifically, we train a multi-view masked autoencoder which reconstructs pixels of randomly masked viewpoints and then learn a world model operating on the representations from the autoencoder. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in a range of scenarios, including multi-view control and single-view control with auxiliary cameras for representation learning. We also show that the multi-view masked autoencoder trained with multiple randomized viewpoints enables training a policy with strong viewpoint randomization and transferring the policy to solve real-robot tasks without camera calibration and an adaptation procedure. Videos demonstrations in real-world experiments and source code are available at the project website: https://sites.google.com/view/mv-mwm.
Humans are excellent at understanding language and vision to accomplish a wide range of tasks. In contrast, creating general instruction-following embodied agents remains a difficult challenge. Prior work that uses pure language-only models lack visual grounding, making it difficult to connect language instructions with visual observations. On the other hand, methods that use pre-trained vision-language models typically come with divided language and visual representations, requiring designing specialized network architecture to fuse them together. We propose a simple yet effective model for robots to solve instruction-following tasks in vision-based environments. Our \ours method consists of a multimodal transformer that encodes visual observations and language instructions, and a policy transformer that predicts actions based on encoded representations. The multimodal transformer is pre-trained on millions of image-text pairs and natural language text, thereby producing generic cross-modal representations of observations and instructions. The policy transformer keeps track of the full history of observations and actions, and predicts actions autoregressively. We show that this unified transformer model outperforms all state-of-the-art pre-trained or trained-from-scratch methods in both single-task and multi-task settings. Our model also shows better model scalability and generalization ability than prior work.