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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

Aerial Monocular 3D Object Detection

Aug 08, 2022
Yue Hu, Shaoheng Fang, Weidi Xie, Siheng Chen

Drones equipped with cameras can significantly enhance human ability to perceive the world because of their remarkable maneuverability in 3D space. Ironically, object detection for drones has always been conducted in the 2D image space, which fundamentally limits their ability to understand 3D scenes. Furthermore, existing 3D object detection methods developed for autonomous driving cannot be directly applied to drones due to the lack of deformation modeling, which is essential for the distant aerial perspective with sensitive distortion and small objects. To fill the gap, this work proposes a dual-view detection system named DVDET to achieve aerial monocular object detection in both the 2D image space and the 3D physical space. To address the severe view deformation issue, we propose a novel trainable geo-deformable transformation module that can properly warp information from the drone's perspective to the BEV. Compared to the monocular methods for cars, our transformation includes a learnable deformable network for explicitly revising the severe deviation. To address the dataset challenge, we propose a new large-scale simulation dataset named AM3D-Sim, generated by the co-simulation of AirSIM and CARLA, and a new real-world aerial dataset named AM3D-Real, collected by DJI Matrice 300 RTK, in both datasets, high-quality annotations for 3D object detection are provided. Extensive experiments show that i) aerial monocular 3D object detection is feasible; ii) the model pre-trained on the simulation dataset benefits real-world performance, and iii) DVDET also benefits monocular 3D object detection for cars. To encourage more researchers to investigate this area, we will release the dataset and related code in https://sjtu-magic.github.io/dataset/AM3D/.

* 8 pages, 8 figures 
  

OCM3D: Object-Centric Monocular 3D Object Detection

Apr 13, 2021
Liang Peng, Fei Liu, Senbo Yan, Xiaofei He, Deng Cai

Image-only and pseudo-LiDAR representations are commonly used for monocular 3D object detection. However, methods based on them have shortcomings of either not well capturing the spatial relationships in neighbored image pixels or being hard to handle the noisy nature of the monocular pseudo-LiDAR point cloud. To overcome these issues, in this paper we propose a novel object-centric voxel representation tailored for monocular 3D object detection. Specifically, voxels are built on each object proposal, and their sizes are adaptively determined by the 3D spatial distribution of the points, allowing the noisy point cloud to be organized effectively within a voxel grid. This representation is proved to be able to locate the object in 3D space accurately. Furthermore, prior works would like to estimate the orientation via deep features extracted from an entire image or a noisy point cloud. By contrast, we argue that the local RoI information from the object image patch alone with a proper resizing scheme is a better input as it provides complete semantic clues meanwhile excludes irrelevant interferences. Besides, we decompose the confidence mechanism in monocular 3D object detection by considering the relationship between 3D objects and the associated 2D boxes. Evaluated on KITTI, our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a large margin. The code will be made publicly available soon.

  

Remote Sensing Image Super-resolution and Object Detection: Benchmark and State of the Art

Nov 05, 2021
Yi Wang, Syed Muhammad Arsalan Bashir, Mahrukh Khan, Qudrat Ullah, Rui Wang, Yilin Song, Zhe Guo, Yilong Niu

For the past two decades, there have been significant efforts to develop methods for object detection in Remote Sensing (RS) images. In most cases, the datasets for small object detection in remote sensing images are inadequate. Many researchers used scene classification datasets for object detection, which has its limitations; for example, the large-sized objects outnumber the small objects in object categories. Thus, they lack diversity; this further affects the detection performance of small object detectors in RS images. This paper reviews current datasets and object detection methods (deep learning-based) for remote sensing images. We also propose a large-scale, publicly available benchmark Remote Sensing Super-resolution Object Detection (RSSOD) dataset. The RSSOD dataset consists of 1,759 hand-annotated images with 22,091 instances of very high resolution (VHR) images with a spatial resolution of ~0.05 m. There are five classes with varying frequencies of labels per class. The image patches are extracted from satellite images, including real image distortions such as tangential scale distortion and skew distortion. We also propose a novel Multi-class Cyclic super-resolution Generative adversarial network with Residual feature aggregation (MCGR) and auxiliary YOLOv5 detector to benchmark image super-resolution-based object detection and compare with the existing state-of-the-art methods based on image super-resolution (SR). The proposed MCGR achieved state-of-the-art performance for image SR with an improvement of 1.2dB PSNR compared to the current state-of-the-art NLSN method. MCGR achieved best object detection mAPs of 0.758, 0.881, 0.841, and 0.983, respectively, for five-class, four-class, two-class, and single classes, respectively surpassing the performance of the state-of-the-art object detectors YOLOv5, EfficientDet, Faster RCNN, SSD, and RetinaNet.

* 39 pages, 15 figures, 5 tables. Submitted to Elsevier journal for review 
  

On Hyperbolic Embeddings in 2D Object Detection

Mar 18, 2022
Christopher Lang, Alexander Braun, Abhinav Valada

Object detection, for the most part, has been formulated in the euclidean space, where euclidean or spherical geodesic distances measure the similarity of an image region to an object class prototype. In this work, we study whether a hyperbolic geometry better matches the underlying structure of the object classification space. We incorporate a hyperbolic classifier in two-stage, keypoint-based, and transformer-based object detection architectures and evaluate them on large-scale, long-tailed, and zero-shot object detection benchmarks. In our extensive experimental evaluations, we observe categorical class hierarchies emerging in the structure of the classification space, resulting in lower classification errors and boosting the overall object detection performance.

* 14 pages, 5 figures 
  

Few-shot Object Detection with Self-adaptive Attention Network for Remote Sensing Images

Sep 26, 2020
Zixuan Xiao, Wei Xue, Ping Zhong

In remote sensing field, there are many applications of object detection in recent years, which demands a great number of labeled data. However, we may be faced with some cases where only limited data are available. In this paper, we proposed a few-shot object detector which is designed for detecting novel objects provided with only a few examples. Particularly, in order to fit the object detection settings, our proposed few-shot detector concentrates on the relations that lie in the level of objects instead of the full image with the assistance of Self-Adaptive Attention Network (SAAN). The SAAN can fully leverage the object-level relations through a relation GRU unit and simultaneously attach attention on object features in a self-adaptive way according to the object-level relations to avoid some situations where the additional attention is useless or even detrimental. Eventually, the detection results are produced from the features that are added with attention and thus are able to be detected simply. The experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in few-shot scenes.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2009.01616 
  

SHOP: A Deep Learning Based Pipeline for near Real-Time Detection of Small Handheld Objects Present in Blurry Video

Mar 29, 2022
Abhinav Ganguly, Amar C Gandhi, Sylvia E, Jeffrey D Chang, Ian M Hudson

While prior works have investigated and developed computational models capable of object detection, models still struggle to reliably interpret images with motion blur and small objects. Moreover, none of these models are specifically designed for handheld object detection. In this work, we present SHOP (Small Handheld Object Pipeline), a pipeline that reliably and efficiently interprets blurry images containing handheld objects. The specific models used in each stage of the pipeline are flexible and can be changed based on performance requirements. First, images are deblurred and then run through a pose detection system where areas-of-interest are proposed around the hands of any people present. Next, object detection is performed on the images by a single-stage object detector. Finally, the proposed areas-of-interest are used to filter out low confidence detections. Testing on a handheld subset of Microsoft Common Objects in Context (MS COCO) demonstrates that this 3 stage process results in a 70 percent decrease in false positives while only reducing true positives by 17 percent in its strongest configuration. We also present a subset of MS COCO consisting solely of handheld objects that can be used to continue the development of handheld object detection methods. https://github.com/spider-sense/SHOP

* 8 pages, 5 figures. Accepted to IEEE SoutheastCon 2022 
  

MLCVNet: Multi-Level Context VoteNet for 3D Object Detection

Apr 12, 2020
Qian Xie, Yu-Kun Lai, Jing Wu, Zhoutao Wang, Yiming Zhang, Kai Xu, Jun Wang

In this paper, we address the 3D object detection task by capturing multi-level contextual information with the self-attention mechanism and multi-scale feature fusion. Most existing 3D object detection methods recognize objects individually, without giving any consideration on contextual information between these objects. Comparatively, we propose Multi-Level Context VoteNet (MLCVNet) to recognize 3D objects correlatively, building on the state-of-the-art VoteNet. We introduce three context modules into the voting and classifying stages of VoteNet to encode contextual information at different levels. Specifically, a Patch-to-Patch Context (PPC) module is employed to capture contextual information between the point patches, before voting for their corresponding object centroid points. Subsequently, an Object-to-Object Context (OOC) module is incorporated before the proposal and classification stage, to capture the contextual information between object candidates. Finally, a Global Scene Context (GSC) module is designed to learn the global scene context. We demonstrate these by capturing contextual information at patch, object and scene levels. Our method is an effective way to promote detection accuracy, achieving new state-of-the-art detection performance on challenging 3D object detection datasets, i.e., SUN RGBD and ScanNet. We also release our code at https://github.com/NUAAXQ/MLCVNet.

* To be presented at CVPR 2020 
  

3D Object Proposals using Stereo Imagery for Accurate Object Class Detection

Apr 25, 2017
Xiaozhi Chen, Kaustav Kundu, Yukun Zhu, Huimin Ma, Sanja Fidler, Raquel Urtasun

The goal of this paper is to perform 3D object detection in the context of autonomous driving. Our method first aims at generating a set of high-quality 3D object proposals by exploiting stereo imagery. We formulate the problem as minimizing an energy function that encodes object size priors, placement of objects on the ground plane as well as several depth informed features that reason about free space, point cloud densities and distance to the ground. We then exploit a CNN on top of these proposals to perform object detection. In particular, we employ a convolutional neural net (CNN) that exploits context and depth information to jointly regress to 3D bounding box coordinates and object pose. Our experiments show significant performance gains over existing RGB and RGB-D object proposal methods on the challenging KITTI benchmark. When combined with the CNN, our approach outperforms all existing results in object detection and orientation estimation tasks for all three KITTI object classes. Furthermore, we experiment also with the setting where LIDAR information is available, and show that using both LIDAR and stereo leads to the best result.

* 14 pages, 12 figures 
  

Detecting Human-Object Interaction via Fabricated Compositional Learning

Mar 15, 2021
Zhi Hou, Baosheng Yu, Yu Qiao, Xiaojiang Peng, Dacheng Tao

Human-Object Interaction (HOI) detection, inferring the relationships between human and objects from images/videos, is a fundamental task for high-level scene understanding. However, HOI detection usually suffers from the open long-tailed nature of interactions with objects, while human has extremely powerful compositional perception ability to cognize rare or unseen HOI samples. Inspired by this, we devise a novel HOI compositional learning framework, termed as Fabricated Compositional Learning (FCL), to address the problem of open long-tailed HOI detection. Specifically, we introduce an object fabricator to generate effective object representations, and then combine verbs and fabricated objects to compose new HOI samples. With the proposed object fabricator, we are able to generate large-scale HOI samples for rare and unseen categories to alleviate the open long-tailed issues in HOI detection. Extensive experiments on the most popular HOI detection dataset, HICO-DET, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for imbalanced HOI detection and significantly improve the state-of-the-art performance on rare and unseen HOI categories. Code is available at https://github.com/zhihou7/FCL.

* Accepted to CVPR2021 
  

A Review and Comparative Study on Probabilistic Object Detection in Autonomous Driving

Nov 20, 2020
Di Feng, Ali Harakeh, Steven Waslander, Klaus Dietmayer

Capturing uncertainty in object detection is indispensable for safe autonomous driving. In recent years, deep learning has become the de-facto approach for object detection, and many probabilistic object detectors have been proposed. However, there is no summary on uncertainty estimation in deep object detection, and existing methods are not only built with different network architectures and uncertainty estimation methods, but also evaluated on different datasets with a wide range of evaluation metrics. As a result, a comparison among methods remains challenging, as does the selection of a model that best suits a particular application. This paper aims to alleviate this problem by providing a review and comparative study on existing probabilistic object detection methods for autonomous driving applications. First, we provide an overview of generic uncertainty estimation in deep learning, and then systematically survey existing methods and evaluation metrics for probabilistic object detection. Next, we present a strict comparative study for probabilistic object detection based on an image detector and three public autonomous driving datasets. Finally, we present a discussion of the remaining challenges and future works. Code has been made available at https://github.com/asharakeh/pod_compare.git

  
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