With the exponential increase in the amount of digital information over the internet, online shops, online music, video and image libraries, search engines and recommendation system have become the most convenient ways to find relevant information within a short time. In the recent times, deep learning's advances have gained significant attention in the field of speech recognition, image processing and natural language processing. Meanwhile, several recent studies have shown the utility of deep learning in the area of recommendation systems and information retrieval as well. In this short review, we cover the recent advances made in the field of recommendation using various variants of deep learning technology. We organize the review in three parts: Collaborative system, Content based system and Hybrid system. The review also discusses the contribution of deep learning integrated recommendation systems into several application domains. The review concludes by discussion of the impact of deep learning in recommendation system in various domain and whether deep learning has shown any significant improvement over the conventional systems for recommendation. Finally, we also provide future directions of research which are possible based on the current state of use of deep learning in recommendation systems.
We propose a new method for embedding graphs while preserving directed edge information. Learning such continuous-space vector representations (or embeddings) of nodes in a graph is an important first step for using network information (from social networks, user-item graphs, knowledge bases, etc.) in many machine learning tasks. Unlike previous work, we (1) explicitly model an edge as a function of node embeddings, and we (2) propose a novel objective, the "graph likelihood", which contrasts information from sampled random walks with non-existent edges. Individually, both of these contributions improve the learned representations, especially when there are memory constraints on the total size of the embeddings. When combined, our contributions enable us to significantly improve the state-of-the-art by learning more concise representations that better preserve the graph structure. We evaluate our method on a variety of link-prediction task including social networks, collaboration networks, and protein interactions, showing that our proposed method learn representations with error reductions of up to 76% and 55%, on directed and undirected graphs. In addition, we show that the representations learned by our method are quite space efficient, producing embeddings which have higher structure-preserving accuracy but are 10 times smaller.
Adversarial training was recently shown to be competitive against supervised learning methods on computer vision tasks, however, studies have mainly been confined to generative tasks such as image synthesis. In this paper, we apply adversarial training techniques to the discriminative task of learning a steganographic algorithm. Steganography is a collection of techniques for concealing information by embedding it within a non-secret medium, such as cover texts or images. We show that adversarial training can produce robust steganographic techniques: our unsupervised training scheme produces a steganographic algorithm that competes with state-of-the-art steganographic techniques, and produces a robust steganalyzer, which performs the discriminative task of deciding if an image contains secret information. We define a game between three parties, Alice, Bob and Eve, in order to simultaneously train both a steganographic algorithm and a steganalyzer. Alice and Bob attempt to communicate a secret message contained within an image, while Eve eavesdrops on their conversation and attempts to determine if secret information is embedded within the image. We represent Alice, Bob and Eve by neural networks, and validate our scheme on two independent image datasets, showing our novel method of studying steganographic problems is surprisingly competitive against established steganographic techniques.
With a widespread use of digital imaging data in hospitals, the size of medical image repositories is increasing rapidly. This causes difficulty in managing and querying these large databases leading to the need of content based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems. A major challenge in CBMIR systems is the semantic gap that exists between the low level visual information captured by imaging devices and high level semantic information perceived by human. The efficacy of such systems is more crucial in terms of feature representations that can characterize the high-level information completely. In this paper, we propose a framework of deep learning for CBMIR system by using deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that is trained for classification of medical images. An intermodal dataset that contains twenty four classes and five modalities is used to train the network. The learned features and the classification results are used to retrieve medical images. For retrieval, best results are achieved when class based predictions are used. An average classification accuracy of 99.77% and a mean average precision of 0.69 is achieved for retrieval task. The proposed method is best suited to retrieve multimodal medical images for different body organs.
Modern robotics applications that involve human-robot interaction require robots to be able to communicate with humans seamlessly and effectively. Natural language provides a flexible and efficient medium through which robots can exchange information with their human partners. Significant advancements have been made in developing robots capable of interpreting free-form instructions, but less attention has been devoted to endowing robots with the ability to generate natural language. We propose a navigational guide model that enables robots to generate natural language instructions that allow humans to navigate a priori unknown environments. We first decide which information to share with the user according to their preferences, using a policy trained from human demonstrations via inverse reinforcement learning. We then "translate" this information into a natural language instruction using a neural sequence-to-sequence model that learns to generate free-form instructions from natural language corpora. We evaluate our method on a benchmark route instruction dataset and achieve a BLEU score of 72.18% when compared to human-generated reference instructions. We additionally conduct navigation experiments with human participants that demonstrate that our method generates instructions that people follow as accurately and easily as those produced by humans.
We study the stream-based online active learning in a contextual multi-armed bandit framework. In this framework, the reward depends on both the arm and the context. In a stream-based active learning setting, obtaining the ground truth of the reward is costly, and the conventional contextual multi-armed bandit algorithm fails to achieve a sublinear regret due to this cost. Hence, the algorithm needs to determine whether or not to request the ground truth of the reward at current time slot. In our framework, we consider a stream-based active learning setting in which a query request for the ground truth is sent to the annotator, together with some prior information of the ground truth. Depending on the accuracy of the prior information, the query cost varies. Our algorithm mainly carries out two operations: the refinement of the context and arm spaces and the selection of actions. In our algorithm, the partitions of the context space and the arm space are maintained for a certain time slots, and then become finer as more information about the rewards accumulates. We use a strategic way to select the arms and to request the ground truth of the reward, aiming to maximize the total reward. We analytically show that the regret is sublinear and in the same order with that of the conventional contextual multi-armed bandit algorithms, where no query cost
Computational neuroscience studies that have examined human visual system through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified a model where the mammalian brain pursues two distinct pathways (for recognition of biological movement tasks). In the brain, dorsal stream analyzes the information of motion (optical flow), which is the fast features, and ventral stream (form pathway) analyzes form information (through active basis model based incremental slow feature analysis ) as slow features. The proposed approach suggests the motion perception of the human visual system composes of fast and slow feature interactions that identifies biological movements. Form features in the visual system biologically follows the application of active basis model with incremental slow feature analysis for the extraction of the slowest form features of human objects movements in the ventral stream. Applying incremental slow feature analysis provides an opportunity to use the action prototypes. To extract the slowest features episodic observation is required but the fast features updates the processing of motion information in every frames. Experimental results have shown promising accuracy for the proposed model and good performance with two datasets (KTH and Weizmann).
This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful relative comparisons to achieve effective metric learning with minimum user effort. Given an underlying class concept that is employed by the user to provide such constraints, we present an information-theoretic criterion that selects the triplet whose answer leads to the highest expected gain in information about the classes of a set of examples. Directly applying the proposed criterion requires examining $O(n^3)$ triplets with $n$ instances, which is prohibitive even for datasets of moderate size. We show that a randomized selection strategy can be used to reduce the selection pool from $O(n^3)$ to $O(n)$, allowing us to scale up to larger-size problems. Experiments show that the proposed method consistently outperforms two baseline policies.
Graphical structures estimated by causal learning algorithms from time series data can provide highly misleading causal information if the causal timescale of the generating process fails to match the measurement timescale of the data. Although this problem has been recently recognized, practitioners have limited resources to respond to it, and so must continue using models that they know are likely misleading. Existing methods either (a) require that the difference between causal and measurement timescales is known; or (b) can handle only very small number of random variables when the timescale difference is unknown; or (c) apply to only pairs of variables, though with fewer assumptions about prior knowledge; or (d) return impractically too many solutions. This paper addresses all four challenges. We combine constraint programming with both theoretical insights into the problem structure and prior information about admissible causal interactions. The resulting system provides a practical approach that scales to significantly larger sets (>100) of random variables, does not require precise knowledge of the timescale difference, supports edge misidentification and parametric connection strengths, and can provide the optimum choice among many possible solutions. The cumulative impact of these improvements is gain of multiple orders of magnitude in speed and informativeness.
Multilingual BERT (mBERT), a language model pre-trained on large multilingual corpora, has impressive zero-shot cross-lingual transfer capabilities and performs surprisingly well on zero-shot POS tagging and Named Entity Recognition (NER), as well as on cross-lingual model transfer. At present, the mainstream methods to solve the cross-lingual downstream tasks are always using the last transformer layer's output of mBERT as the representation of linguistic information. In this work, we explore the complementary property of lower layers to the last transformer layer of mBERT. A feature aggregation module based on an attention mechanism is proposed to fuse the information contained in different layers of mBERT. The experiments are conducted on four zero-shot cross-lingual transfer datasets, and the proposed method obtains performance improvements on key multilingual benchmark tasks XNLI (+1.5 %), PAWS-X (+2.4 %), NER (+1.2 F1), and POS (+1.5 F1). Through the analysis of the experimental results, we prove that the layers before the last layer of mBERT can provide extra useful information for cross-lingual downstream tasks and explore the interpretability of mBERT empirically.