Contrastive language-image pre-training (CLIP) models have demonstrated considerable success across various vision-language tasks, such as text-to-image retrieval, where the model is required to effectively process natural language input to produce an accurate visual output. However, current models still face limitations in dealing with linguistic variations in input queries, such as paraphrases, making it challenging to handle a broad range of user queries in real-world applications. In this study, we introduce a straightforward fine-tuning approach to enhance the representations of CLIP models for paraphrases. Our approach involves a two-step paraphrase generation process, where we automatically create two categories of paraphrases from web-scale image captions by leveraging large language models. Subsequently, we fine-tune the CLIP text encoder using these generated paraphrases while freezing the image encoder. Our resulting model, which we call ParaCLIP, exhibits significant improvements over baseline CLIP models across various tasks, including paraphrased retrieval (with rank similarity scores improved by up to 2.0% and 5.6%), Visual Genome Relation and Attribution, as well as seven semantic textual similarity tasks.
Conversational search, unlike single-turn retrieval tasks, requires understanding the current question within a dialogue context. The common approach of rewrite-then-retrieve aims to decontextualize questions to be self-sufficient for off-the-shelf retrievers, but most existing methods produce sub-optimal query rewrites due to the limited ability to incorporate signals from the retrieval results. To overcome this limitation, we present a novel framework RetPO (Retriever's Preference Optimization), which is designed to optimize a language model (LM) for reformulating search queries in line with the preferences of the target retrieval systems. The process begins by prompting a large LM to produce various potential rewrites and then collects retrieval performance for these rewrites as the retrievers' preferences. Through the process, we construct a large-scale dataset called RF collection, containing Retrievers' Feedback on over 410K query rewrites across 12K conversations. Furthermore, we fine-tune a smaller LM using this dataset to align it with the retrievers' preferences as feedback. The resulting model achieves state-of-the-art performance on two recent conversational search benchmarks, significantly outperforming existing baselines, including GPT-3.5.
In the evolving landscape of machine learning, the adaptation of pre-trained models through prompt tuning has become increasingly prominent. This trend is particularly observable in the graph domain, where diverse pre-training strategies present unique challenges in developing effective prompt-based tuning methods for graph neural networks. Previous approaches have been limited, focusing on specialized prompting functions tailored to models with edge prediction pre-training tasks. These methods, however, suffer from a lack of generalizability across different pre-training strategies. Recently, a simple prompt tuning method has been designed for any pre-training strategy, functioning within the input graph's feature space. This allows it to theoretically emulate any type of prompting function, thereby significantly increasing its versatility for a range of downstream applications. Nevertheless, the capacity of such simple prompts to fully grasp the complex contexts found in graphs remains an open question, necessitating further investigation. Addressing this challenge, our work introduces the Subgraph-level Universal Prompt Tuning (SUPT) approach, focusing on the detailed context within subgraphs. In SUPT, prompt features are assigned at the subgraph-level, preserving the method's universal capability. This requires extremely fewer tuning parameters than fine-tuning-based methods, outperforming them in 42 out of 45 full-shot scenario experiments with an average improvement of over 2.5%. In few-shot scenarios, it excels in 41 out of 45 experiments, achieving an average performance increase of more than 6.6%.
Molecular core structures and R-groups are essential concepts in drug development. Integration of these concepts with conventional graph pre-training approaches can promote deeper understanding in molecules. We propose MolPLA, a novel pre-training framework that employs masked graph contrastive learning in understanding the underlying decomposable parts inmolecules that implicate their core structure and peripheral R-groups. Furthermore, we formulate an additional framework that grants MolPLA the ability to help chemists find replaceable R-groups in lead optimization scenarios. Experimental results on molecular property prediction show that MolPLA exhibits predictability comparable to current state-of-the-art models. Qualitative analysis implicate that MolPLA is capable of distinguishing core and R-group sub-structures, identifying decomposable regions in molecules and contributing to lead optimization scenarios by rationally suggesting R-group replacements given various query core templates. The code implementation for MolPLA and its pre-trained model checkpoint is available at https://github.com/dmis-lab/MolPLA
Recent proprietary large language models (LLMs), such as GPT-4, have achieved a milestone in tackling diverse challenges in the biomedical domain, ranging from multiple-choice questions to long-form generations. To address challenges that still cannot be handled with the encoded knowledge of LLMs, various retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) methods have been developed by searching documents from the knowledge corpus and appending them unconditionally or selectively to the input of LLMs for generation. However, when applying existing methods to different domain-specific problems, poor generalization becomes apparent, leading to fetching incorrect documents or making inaccurate judgments. In this paper, we introduce Self-BioRAG, a framework reliable for biomedical text that specializes in generating explanations, retrieving domain-specific documents, and self-reflecting generated responses. We utilize 84k filtered biomedical instruction sets to train Self-BioRAG that can assess its generated explanations with customized reflective tokens. Our work proves that domain-specific components, such as a retriever, domain-related document corpus, and instruction sets are necessary for adhering to domain-related instructions. Using three major medical question-answering benchmark datasets, experimental results of Self-BioRAG demonstrate significant performance gains by achieving a 7.2% absolute improvement on average over the state-of-the-art open-foundation model with a parameter size of 7B or less. Overall, we analyze that Self-BioRAG finds the clues in the question, retrieves relevant documents if needed, and understands how to answer with information from retrieved documents and encoded knowledge as a medical expert does. We release our data and code for training our framework components and model weights (7B and 13B) to enhance capabilities in biomedical and clinical domains.
Recent advances in deep neural networks have achieved significant progress in detecting individual objects from an image. However, object detection is not sufficient to fully understand a visual scene. Towards a deeper visual understanding, the interactions between objects, especially humans and objects are essential. Most prior works have obtained this information with a bottom-up approach, where the objects are first detected and the interactions are predicted sequentially by pairing the objects. This is a major bottleneck in HOI detection inference time. To tackle this problem, we propose UnionDet, a one-stage meta-architecture for HOI detection powered by a novel union-level detector that eliminates this additional inference stage by directly capturing the region of interaction. Our one-stage detector for human-object interaction shows a significant reduction in interaction prediction time 4x~14x while outperforming state-of-the-art methods on two public datasets: V-COCO and HICO-DET.
Questions in open-domain question answering are often ambiguous, allowing multiple interpretations. One approach to handling them is to identify all possible interpretations of the ambiguous question (AQ) and to generate a long-form answer addressing them all, as suggested by Stelmakh et al., (2022). While it provides a comprehensive response without bothering the user for clarification, considering multiple dimensions of ambiguity and gathering corresponding knowledge remains a challenge. To cope with the challenge, we propose a novel framework, Tree of Clarifications (ToC): It recursively constructs a tree of disambiguations for the AQ -- via few-shot prompting leveraging external knowledge -- and uses it to generate a long-form answer. ToC outperforms existing baselines on ASQA in a few-shot setup across the metrics, while surpassing fully-supervised baselines trained on the whole training set in terms of Disambig-F1 and Disambig-ROUGE. Code is available at https://github.com/gankim/tree-of-clarifications.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have proven to be effective in processing and learning from graph-structured data. However, previous works mainly focused on understanding single graph inputs while many real-world applications require pair-wise analysis for graph-structured data (e.g., scene graph matching, code searching, and drug-drug interaction prediction). To this end, recent works have shifted their focus to learning the interaction between pairs of graphs. Despite their improved performance, these works were still limited in that the interactions were considered at the node-level, resulting in high computational costs and suboptimal performance. To address this issue, we propose a novel and efficient graph-level approach for extracting interaction representations using co-attention in graph pooling. Our method, Co-Attention Graph Pooling (CAGPool), exhibits competitive performance relative to existing methods in both classification and regression tasks using real-world datasets, while maintaining lower computational complexity.
Time-to-event analysis, also known as survival analysis, aims to predict the time of occurrence of an event, given a set of features. One of the major challenges in this area is dealing with censored data, which can make learning algorithms more complex. Traditional methods such as Cox's proportional hazards model and the accelerated failure time (AFT) model have been popular in this field, but they often require assumptions such as proportional hazards and linearity. In particular, the AFT models often require pre-specified parametric distributional assumptions. To improve predictive performance and alleviate strict assumptions, there have been many deep learning approaches for hazard-based models in recent years. However, representation learning for AFT has not been widely explored in the neural network literature, despite its simplicity and interpretability in comparison to hazard-focused methods. In this work, we introduce the Deep AFT Rank-regression model for Time-to-event prediction (DART). This model uses an objective function based on Gehan's rank statistic, which is efficient and reliable for representation learning. On top of eliminating the requirement to establish a baseline event time distribution, DART retains the advantages of directly predicting event time in standard AFT models. The proposed method is a semiparametric approach to AFT modeling that does not impose any distributional assumptions on the survival time distribution. This also eliminates the need for additional hyperparameters or complex model architectures, unlike existing neural network-based AFT models. Through quantitative analysis on various benchmark datasets, we have shown that DART has significant potential for modeling high-throughput censored time-to-event data.