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Hyunwoo J. Kim

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Advancing Bayesian Optimization via Learning Correlated Latent Space

Nov 20, 2023
Seunghun Lee, Jaewon Chu, Sihyeon Kim, Juyeon Ko, Hyunwoo J. Kim

Bayesian optimization is a powerful method for optimizing black-box functions with limited function evaluations. Recent works have shown that optimization in a latent space through deep generative models such as variational autoencoders leads to effective and efficient Bayesian optimization for structured or discrete data. However, as the optimization does not take place in the input space, it leads to an inherent gap that results in potentially suboptimal solutions. To alleviate the discrepancy, we propose Correlated latent space Bayesian Optimization (CoBO), which focuses on learning correlated latent spaces characterized by a strong correlation between the distances in the latent space and the distances within the objective function. Specifically, our method introduces Lipschitz regularization, loss weighting, and trust region recoordination to minimize the inherent gap around the promising areas. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several optimization tasks in discrete data, such as molecule design and arithmetic expression fitting, and achieve high performance within a small budget.

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Graph-Guided Reasoning for Multi-Hop Question Answering in Large Language Models

Nov 16, 2023
Jinyoung Park, Ameen Patel, Omar Zia Khan, Hyunwoo J. Kim, Joo-Kyung Kim

Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompting has boosted the multi-step reasoning capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) by generating a series of rationales before the final answer. We analyze the reasoning paths generated by CoT and find two issues in multi-step reasoning: (i) Generating rationales irrelevant to the question, (ii) Unable to compose subquestions or queries for generating/retrieving all the relevant information. To address them, we propose a graph-guided CoT prompting method, which guides the LLMs to reach the correct answer with graph representation/verification steps. Specifically, we first leverage LLMs to construct a "question/rationale graph" by using knowledge extraction prompting given the initial question and the rationales generated in the previous steps. Then, the graph verification step diagnoses the current rationale triplet by comparing it with the existing question/rationale graph to filter out irrelevant rationales and generate follow-up questions to obtain relevant information. Additionally, we generate CoT paths that exclude the extracted graph information to represent the context information missed from the graph extraction. Our graph-guided reasoning method shows superior performance compared to previous CoT prompting and the variants on multi-hop question answering benchmark datasets.

* Preprint 
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UP-NeRF: Unconstrained Pose-Prior-Free Neural Radiance Fields

Nov 08, 2023
Injae Kim, Minhyuk Choi, Hyunwoo J. Kim

Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) has enabled novel view synthesis with high fidelity given images and camera poses. Subsequent works even succeeded in eliminating the necessity of pose priors by jointly optimizing NeRF and camera pose. However, these works are limited to relatively simple settings such as photometrically consistent and occluder-free image collections or a sequence of images from a video. So they have difficulty handling unconstrained images with varying illumination and transient occluders. In this paper, we propose $\textbf{UP-NeRF}$ ($\textbf{U}$nconstrained $\textbf{P}$ose-prior-free $\textbf{Ne}$ural $\textbf{R}$adiance $\textbf{F}$ields) to optimize NeRF with unconstrained image collections without camera pose prior. We tackle these challenges with surrogate tasks that optimize color-insensitive feature fields and a separate module for transient occluders to block their influence on pose estimation. In addition, we introduce a candidate head to enable more robust pose estimation and transient-aware depth supervision to minimize the effect of incorrect prior. Our experiments verify the superior performance of our method compared to the baselines including BARF and its variants in a challenging internet photo collection, $\textit{Phototourism}$ dataset.

* Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), 2023. The code is available at 
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Large Language Models are Temporal and Causal Reasoners for Video Question Answering

Nov 06, 2023
Dohwan Ko, Ji Soo Lee, Wooyoung Kang, Byungseok Roh, Hyunwoo J. Kim

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown remarkable performances on a wide range of natural language understanding and generation tasks. We observe that the LLMs provide effective priors in exploiting $\textit{linguistic shortcuts}$ for temporal and causal reasoning in Video Question Answering (VideoQA). However, such priors often cause suboptimal results on VideoQA by leading the model to over-rely on questions, $\textit{i.e.}$, $\textit{linguistic bias}$, while ignoring visual content. This is also known as `ungrounded guesses' or `hallucinations'. To address this problem while leveraging LLMs' prior on VideoQA, we propose a novel framework, Flipped-VQA, encouraging the model to predict all the combinations of $\langle$V, Q, A$\rangle$ triplet by flipping the source pair and the target label to understand their complex relationships, $\textit{i.e.}$, predict A, Q, and V given a VQ, VA, and QA pairs, respectively. In this paper, we develop LLaMA-VQA by applying Flipped-VQA to LLaMA, and it outperforms both LLMs-based and non-LLMs-based models on five challenging VideoQA benchmarks. Furthermore, our Flipped-VQA is a general framework that is applicable to various LLMs (OPT and GPT-J) and consistently improves their performances. We empirically demonstrate that Flipped-VQA not only enhances the exploitation of linguistic shortcuts but also mitigates the linguistic bias, which causes incorrect answers over-relying on the question. Code is available at

* Accepted paper at EMNLP 2023 Main 
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NuTrea: Neural Tree Search for Context-guided Multi-hop KGQA

Oct 24, 2023
Hyeong Kyu Choi, Seunghun Lee, Jaewon Chu, Hyunwoo J. Kim

Multi-hop Knowledge Graph Question Answering (KGQA) is a task that involves retrieving nodes from a knowledge graph (KG) to answer natural language questions. Recent GNN-based approaches formulate this task as a KG path searching problem, where messages are sequentially propagated from the seed node towards the answer nodes. However, these messages are past-oriented, and they do not consider the full KG context. To make matters worse, KG nodes often represent proper noun entities and are sometimes encrypted, being uninformative in selecting between paths. To address these problems, we propose Neural Tree Search (NuTrea), a tree search-based GNN model that incorporates the broader KG context. Our model adopts a message-passing scheme that probes the unreached subtree regions to boost the past-oriented embeddings. In addition, we introduce the Relation Frequency-Inverse Entity Frequency (RF-IEF) node embedding that considers the global KG context to better characterize ambiguous KG nodes. The general effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through experiments on three major multi-hop KGQA benchmark datasets, and our extensive analyses further validate its expressiveness and robustness. Overall, NuTrea provides a powerful means to query the KG with complex natural language questions. Code is available at

* Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) 2023 
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Distribution-Aware Prompt Tuning for Vision-Language Models

Sep 06, 2023
Eulrang Cho, Jooyeon Kim, Hyunwoo J. Kim

Pre-trained vision-language models (VLMs) have shown impressive performance on various downstream tasks by utilizing knowledge learned from large data. In general, the performance of VLMs on target tasks can be further improved by prompt tuning, which adds context to the input image or text. By leveraging data from target tasks, various prompt-tuning methods have been studied in the literature. A key to prompt tuning is the feature space alignment between two modalities via learnable vectors with model parameters fixed. We observed that the alignment becomes more effective when embeddings of each modality are `well-arranged' in the latent space. Inspired by this observation, we proposed distribution-aware prompt tuning (DAPT) for vision-language models, which is simple yet effective. Specifically, the prompts are learned by maximizing inter-dispersion, the distance between classes, as well as minimizing the intra-dispersion measured by the distance between embeddings from the same class. Our extensive experiments on 11 benchmark datasets demonstrate that our method significantly improves generalizability. The code is available at

* Accepted to ICCV2023 
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Read-only Prompt Optimization for Vision-Language Few-shot Learning

Aug 29, 2023
Dongjun Lee, Seokwon Song, Jihee Suh, Joonmyeong Choi, Sanghyeok Lee, Hyunwoo J. Kim

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In recent years, prompt tuning has proven effective in adapting pre-trained vision-language models to downstream tasks. These methods aim to adapt the pre-trained models by introducing learnable prompts while keeping pre-trained weights frozen. However, learnable prompts can affect the internal representation within the self-attention module, which may negatively impact performance variance and generalization, especially in data-deficient settings. To address these issues, we propose a novel approach, Read-only Prompt Optimization (RPO). RPO leverages masked attention to prevent the internal representation shift in the pre-trained model. Further, to facilitate the optimization of RPO, the read-only prompts are initialized based on special tokens of the pre-trained model. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that RPO outperforms CLIP and CoCoOp in base-to-new generalization and domain generalization while displaying better robustness. Also, the proposed method achieves better generalization on extremely data-deficient settings, while improving parameter efficiency and computational overhead. Code is available at

* Accepted at ICCV2023 
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Concept Bottleneck with Visual Concept Filtering for Explainable Medical Image Classification

Aug 23, 2023
Injae Kim, Jongha Kim, Joonmyung Choi, Hyunwoo J. Kim

Interpretability is a crucial factor in building reliable models for various medical applications. Concept Bottleneck Models (CBMs) enable interpretable image classification by utilizing human-understandable concepts as intermediate targets. Unlike conventional methods that require extensive human labor to construct the concept set, recent works leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs) for generating concepts made automatic concept generation possible. However, those methods do not consider whether a concept is visually relevant or not, which is an important factor in computing meaningful concept scores. Therefore, we propose a visual activation score that measures whether the concept contains visual cues or not, which can be easily computed with unlabeled image data. Computed visual activation scores are then used to filter out the less visible concepts, thus resulting in a final concept set with visually meaningful concepts. Our experimental results show that adopting the proposed visual activation score for concept filtering consistently boosts performance compared to the baseline. Moreover, qualitative analyses also validate that visually relevant concepts are successfully selected with the visual activation score.

* Accepted to MedAGI Workshop at MICCAI 2023 (Oral Presentation) 
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