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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Joint Event Extraction along Shortest Dependency Paths using Graph Convolutional Networks

Mar 19, 2020
Ali Balali, Masoud Asadpour, Ricardo Campos, Adam Jatowt

Event extraction (EE) is one of the core information extraction tasks, whose purpose is to automatically identify and extract information about incidents and their actors from texts. This may be beneficial to several domains such as knowledge bases, question answering, information retrieval and summarization tasks, to name a few. The problem of extracting event information from texts is longstanding and usually relies on elaborately designed lexical and syntactic features, which, however, take a large amount of human effort and lack generalization. More recently, deep neural network approaches have been adopted as a means to learn underlying features automatically. However, existing networks do not make full use of syntactic features, which play a fundamental role in capturing very long-range dependencies. Also, most approaches extract each argument of an event separately without considering associations between arguments which ultimately leads to low efficiency, especially in sentences with multiple events. To address the two above-referred problems, we propose a novel joint event extraction framework that aims to extract multiple event triggers and arguments simultaneously by introducing shortest dependency path (SDP) in the dependency graph. We do this by eliminating irrelevant words in the sentence, thus capturing long-range dependencies. Also, an attention-based graph convolutional network is proposed, to carry syntactically related information along the shortest paths between argument candidates that captures and aggregates the latent associations between arguments; a problem that has been overlooked by most of the literature. Our results show a substantial improvement over state-of-the-art methods.

  

At Which Level Should We Extract? An Empirical Study on Extractive Document Summarization

Apr 06, 2020
Qingyu Zhou, Furu Wei, Ming Zhou

Extractive methods have proven to be very effective in automatic document summarization. Previous works perform this task by identifying informative contents at sentence level. However, it is unclear whether performing extraction at sentence level is the best solution. In this work, we show that unnecessity and redundancy issues exist when extracting full sentences, and extracting sub-sentential units is a promising alternative. Specifically, we propose extracting sub-sentential units on the corresponding constituency parsing tree. A neural extractive model which leverages the sub-sentential information and extracts them is presented. Extensive experiments and analyses show that extracting sub-sentential units performs competitively comparing to full sentence extraction under the evaluation of both automatic and human evaluations. Hopefully, our work could provide some inspiration of the basic extraction units in extractive summarization for future research.

  

A Novel Framework to Expedite Systematic Reviews by Automatically Building Information Extraction Training Corpora

Jun 21, 2016
Tanmay Basu, Shraman Kumar, Abhishek Kalyan, Priyanka Jayaswal, Pawan Goyal, Stephen Pettifer, Siddhartha R. Jonnalagadda

A systematic review identifies and collates various clinical studies and compares data elements and results in order to provide an evidence based answer for a particular clinical question. The process is manual and involves lot of time. A tool to automate this process is lacking. The aim of this work is to develop a framework using natural language processing and machine learning to build information extraction algorithms to identify data elements in a new primary publication, without having to go through the expensive task of manual annotation to build gold standards for each data element type. The system is developed in two stages. Initially, it uses information contained in existing systematic reviews to identify the sentences from the PDF files of the included references that contain specific data elements of interest using a modified Jaccard similarity measure. These sentences have been treated as labeled data.A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is trained on this labeled data to extract data elements of interests from a new article. We conducted experiments on Cochrane Database systematic reviews related to congestive heart failure using inclusion criteria as an example data element. The empirical results show that the proposed system automatically identifies sentences containing the data element of interest with a high recall (93.75%) and reasonable precision (27.05% - which means the reviewers have to read only 3.7 sentences on average). The empirical results suggest that the tool is retrieving valuable information from the reference articles, even when it is time-consuming to identify them manually. Thus we hope that the tool will be useful for automatic data extraction from biomedical research publications. The future scope of this work is to generalize this information framework for all types of systematic reviews.

  

Automatic extraction of requirements expressed in industrial standards : a way towards machine readable standards ?

Dec 24, 2021
Helene de Ribaupierre, Anne-Francoise Cutting-Decelle, Nathalie Baumier, Serge Blumental

The project, under industrial funding, presented in this publication aims at the semantic analysis of a normative document describing requirements applicable to electrical appliances. The objective of the project is to build a semantic approach to extract and automatically process information related to the requirements contained in the standard. To this end, the project has been divided into three parts, covering the analysis of the requirements document, the extraction of relevant information and creation of the ontology and the comparison with other approaches. The first part of our work deals with the analysis of the requirements document under study. The study focuses on the specificity of the sentence structure, the use of particular words and vocabulary related to the representation of the requirements. The aim is to propose a representation facilitating the extraction of information, used in the second part of the study. In the second part, the extraction of relevant information is conducted in two ways: manual (the ontology being built by hand), semi-automatic (using semantic annotation software and natural language processing techniques). Whatever the method used, the aim of this extraction is to create the concept dictionary, then the ontology, enriched as the document is scanned and understood by the system. Once the relevant terms have been identified, the work focuses on identifying and representing the requirements, separating the textual writing from the information given in the tables. The automatic processing of requirements involves the extraction of sentences containing terms identified as relevant to a requirement. The identified requirement is then indexed and stored in a representation that can be used for query processing.

  

An Intellectual Property Entity Recognition Method Based on Transformer and Technological Word Information

Mar 21, 2022
Yuhui Wang, Junping Du, Yingxia Shao

Patent texts contain a large amount of entity information. Through named entity recognition, intellectual property entity information containing key information can be extracted from it, helping researchers to understand the patent content faster. Therefore, it is difficult for existing named entity extraction methods to make full use of the semantic information at the word level brought about by professional vocabulary changes. This paper proposes a method for extracting intellectual property entities based on Transformer and technical word information , and provides accurate word vector representation in combination with the BERT language method. In the process of word vector generation, the technical word information extracted by IDCNN is added to improve the understanding of intellectual property entities Representation ability. Finally, the Transformer encoder that introduces relative position encoding is used to learn the deep semantic information of the text from the sequence of word vectors, and realize entity label prediction. Experimental results on public datasets and annotated patent datasets show that the method improves the accuracy of entity recognition.

  

IMoJIE: Iterative Memory-Based Joint Open Information Extraction

May 17, 2020
Keshav Kolluru, Samarth Aggarwal, Vipul Rathore, Mausam, Soumen Chakrabarti

While traditional systems for Open Information Extraction were statistical and rule-based, recently neural models have been introduced for the task. Our work builds upon CopyAttention, a sequence generation OpenIE model (Cui et. al., 2018). Our analysis reveals that CopyAttention produces a constant number of extractions per sentence, and its extracted tuples often express redundant information. We present IMoJIE, an extension to CopyAttention, which produces the next extraction conditioned on all previously extracted tuples. This approach overcomes both shortcomings of CopyAttention, resulting in a variable number of diverse extractions per sentence. We train IMoJIE on training data bootstrapped from extractions of several non-neural systems, which have been automatically filtered to reduce redundancy and noise. IMoJIE outperforms CopyAttention by about 18 F1 pts, and a BERT-based strong baseline by 2 F1 pts, establishing a new state of the art for the task.

* ACL 2020, Long paper 
  

Use of 'off-the-shelf' information extraction algorithms in clinical informatics: a feasibility study of MetaMap annotation of Italian medical notes

Apr 02, 2021
Emma Chiaramello, Francesco Pinciroli, Alberico Bonalumi, Angelo Caroli, Gabriella Tognola

Information extraction from narrative clinical notes is useful for patient care, as well as for secondary use of medical data, for research or clinical purposes. Many studies focused on information extraction from English clinical texts, but less dealt with clinical notes in languages other than English. This study tested the feasibility of using 'off the shelf' information extraction algorithms to identify medical concepts from Italian clinical notes. We used MetaMap to map medical concepts to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The study addressed two questions: (Q1) to understand if it would be possible to properly map medical terms found in clinical notes and related to the semantic group of 'Disorders' to the Italian UMLS resources; (Q2) to investigate if it would be feasible to use MetaMap as it is to extract these medical concepts from Italian clinical notes. Results in EXP1 showed that the Italian UMLS Metathesaurus sources covered 91% of the medical terms of the 'Disorders' semantic group, as found in the studied dataset. Even if MetaMap was built to analyze texts written in English, it worked properly also with texts written in Italian. MetaMap identified correctly about half of the concepts in the Italian clinical notes. Using MetaMap's annotation on Italian clinical notes instead of a simple text search improved our results of about 15 percentage points. MetaMap showed recall, precision and F-measure of 0.53, 0.98 and 0.69, respectively. Most of the failures were due to the impossibility for MetaMap to generate Italian meaningful variants. MetaMap's performance in annotating automatically translated English clinical notes was in line with findings in the literature, with similar recall (0.75), F-measure (0.83) and even higher precision (0.95).

* Journal of biomedical informatics, Volume 63, October 2016, Pages 22-32 
* This paper has been published in the Journal of biomedical informatics, Volume 63, October 2016, Pages 22-32 
  

Exploring Adversarial Examples and Adversarial Robustness of Convolutional Neural Networks by Mutual Information

Jul 12, 2022
Jiebao Zhang, Wenhua Qian, Rencan Nie, Jinde Cao, Dan Xu

A counter-intuitive property of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is their inherent susceptibility to adversarial examples, which severely hinders the application of CNNs in security-critical fields. Adversarial examples are similar to original examples but contain malicious perturbations. Adversarial training is a simple and effective training method to improve the robustness of CNNs to adversarial examples. The mechanisms behind adversarial examples and adversarial training are worth exploring. Therefore, this work investigates similarities and differences between two types of CNNs (both normal and robust ones) in information extraction by observing the trends towards the mutual information. We show that 1) the amount of mutual information that CNNs extract from original and adversarial examples is almost similar, whether CNNs are in normal training or adversarial training; the reason why adversarial examples mislead CNNs may be that they contain more texture-based information about other categories; 2) compared with normal training, adversarial training is more difficult and the amount of information extracted by the robust CNNs is less; 3) the CNNs trained with different methods have different preferences for certain types of information; normally trained CNNs tend to extract texture-based information from the inputs, while adversarially trained models prefer to shape-based information. Furthermore, we also analyze the mutual information estimators used in this work, kernel-density-estimation and binning methods, and find that these estimators outline the geometric properties of the middle layer's output to a certain extent.

* initial submit 2 
  

Knowledge-guided Open Attribute Value Extraction with Reinforcement Learning

Oct 19, 2020
Ye Liu, Sheng Zhang, Rui Song, Suo Feng, Yanghua Xiao

Open attribute value extraction for emerging entities is an important but challenging task. A lot of previous works formulate the problem as a \textit{question-answering} (QA) task. While the collections of articles from web corpus provide updated information about the emerging entities, the retrieved texts can be noisy, irrelevant, thus leading to inaccurate answers. Effectively filtering out noisy articles as well as bad answers is the key to improving extraction accuracy. Knowledge graph (KG), which contains rich, well organized information about entities, provides a good resource to address the challenge. In this work, we propose a knowledge-guided reinforcement learning (RL) framework for open attribute value extraction. Informed by relevant knowledge in KG, we trained a deep Q-network to sequentially compare extracted answers to improve extraction accuracy. The proposed framework is applicable to different information extraction system. Our experimental results show that our method outperforms the baselines by 16.5 - 27.8\%.

* EMNLP 2020 
  

Approximate Grammar for Information Extraction

May 06, 2003
V. Sriram, B. Ravi Sekar Reddy, R. Sangal

In this paper, we present the concept of Approximate grammar and how it can be used to extract information from a documemt. As the structure of informational strings cannot be defined well in a document, we cannot use the conventional grammar rules to represent the information. Hence, the need arises to design an approximate grammar that can be used effectively to accomplish the task of Information extraction. Approximate grammars are a novel step in this direction. The rules of an approximate grammar can be given by a user or the machine can learn the rules from an annotated document. We have performed our experiments in both the above areas and the results have been impressive.

* Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language, Goa'2002 
* 10 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables, Presented at "International Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language, Goa'2002" 
  
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