In this research, we introduce the enhanced automated quality assessment network (IBS-AQSNet), an innovative solution for assessing the quality of interactive building segmentation within high-resolution remote sensing imagery. This is a new challenge in segmentation quality assessment, and our proposed IBS-AQSNet allievate this by identifying missed and mistaken segment areas. First of all, to acquire robust image features, our method combines a robust, pre-trained backbone with a lightweight counterpart for comprehensive feature extraction from imagery and segmentation results. These features are then fused through a simple combination of concatenation, convolution layers, and residual connections. Additionally, ISR-AQSNet incorporates a multi-scale differential quality assessment decoder, proficient in pinpointing areas where segmentation result is either missed or mistaken. Experiments on a newly-built EVLab-BGZ dataset, which includes over 39,198 buildings, demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in automating segmentation quality assessment, thereby setting a new benchmark in the field.
* The manuscript is submitted to IEEE International Geoscience and
Remote Sensing Symposium(IGARSS2024)
Sensing and communication technologies have enhanced learning-based decision making methodologies for multi-agent systems such as connected autonomous vehicles (CAV). However, most existing safe reinforcement learning based methods assume accurate state information. It remains challenging to achieve safety requirement under state uncertainties for CAVs, considering the noisy sensor measurements and the vulnerability of communication channels. In this work, we propose a Robust Multi-Agent Proximal Policy Optimization with robust Safety Shield (SR-MAPPO) for CAVs in various driving scenarios. Both robust MARL algorithm and control barrier function (CBF)-based safety shield are used in our approach to cope with the perturbed or uncertain state inputs. The robust policy is trained with a worst-case Q function regularization module that pursues higher lower-bounded reward in the former, whereas the latter, i.e., the robust CBF safety shield accounts for CAVs' collision-free constraints in complicated driving scenarios with even perturbed vehicle state information. We validate the advantages of SR-MAPPO in robustness and safety and compare it with baselines under different driving and state perturbation scenarios in CARLA simulator. The SR-MAPPO policy is verified to maintain higher safety rates and efficiency (reward) when threatened by both state perturbations and unconnected vehicles' dangerous behaviors.
There has been growing interest in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithm design, and reward design is one key component of DRL. Among the various techniques, formal methods integrated with DRL have garnered considerable attention due to their expressiveness and ability to define the requirements for the states and actions of the agent. However, the literature of Signal Temporal Logic (STL) in guiding multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) reward design remains limited. In this paper, we propose a novel STL-guided multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithm. The STL specifications are designed to include both task specifications according to the objective of each agent and safety specifications, and the robustness values of the STL specifications are leveraged to generate rewards. We validate the advantages of our method through empirical studies. The experimental results demonstrate significant performance improvements compared to MARL without STL guidance, along with a remarkable increase in the overall safety rate of the multi-agent systems.
Object detection and multiple object tracking (MOT) are essential components of self-driving systems. Accurate detection and uncertainty quantification are both critical for onboard modules, such as perception, prediction, and planning, to improve the safety and robustness of autonomous vehicles. Collaborative object detection (COD) has been proposed to improve detection accuracy and reduce uncertainty by leveraging the viewpoints of multiple agents. However, little attention has been paid on how to leverage the uncertainty quantification from COD to enhance MOT performance. In this paper, as the first attempt, we design the uncertainty propagation framework to address this challenge, called MOT-CUP. Our framework first quantifies the uncertainty of COD through direct modeling and conformal prediction, and propogates this uncertainty information during the motion prediction and association steps. MOT-CUP is designed to work with different collaborative object detectors and baseline MOT algorithms. We evaluate MOT-CUP on V2X-Sim, a comprehensive collaborative perception dataset, and demonstrate a 2% improvement in accuracy and a 2.67X reduction in uncertainty compared to the baselines, e.g., SORT and ByteTrack. MOT-CUP demonstrates the importance of uncertainty quantification in both COD and MOT, and provides the first attempt to improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty in MOT based on COD through uncertainty propogation.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are being rapidly adopted due to their economic and societal benefits. Autonomous mobility-on-demand (AMoD) systems also embrace this trend. However, the long charging time and high recharging frequency of EVs pose challenges to efficiently managing EV AMoD systems. The complicated dynamic charging and mobility process of EV AMoD systems makes the demand and supply uncertainties significant when designing vehicle balancing algorithms. In this work, we design a data-driven distributionally robust optimization (DRO) approach to balance EVs for both the mobility service and the charging process. The optimization goal is to minimize the worst-case expected cost under both passenger mobility demand uncertainties and EV supply uncertainties. We then propose a novel distributional uncertainty sets construction algorithm that guarantees the produced parameters are contained in desired confidence regions with a given probability. To solve the proposed DRO AMoD EV balancing problem, we derive an equivalent computationally tractable convex optimization problem. Based on real-world EV data of a taxi system, we show that with our solution the average total balancing cost is reduced by 14.49%, and the average mobility fairness and charging fairness are improved by 15.78% and 34.51%, respectively, compared to solutions that do not consider uncertainties.
Communication technologies enable coordination among connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). However, it remains unclear how to utilize shared information to improve the safety and efficiency of the CAV system. In this work, we propose a framework of constrained multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) with a parallel safety shield for CAVs in challenging driving scenarios. The coordination mechanisms of the proposed MARL include information sharing and cooperative policy learning, with Graph Convolutional Network (GCN)-Transformer as a spatial-temporal encoder that enhances the agent's environment awareness. The safety shield module with Control Barrier Functions (CBF)-based safety checking protects the agents from taking unsafe actions. We design a constrained multi-agent advantage actor-critic (CMAA2C) algorithm to train safe and cooperative policies for CAVs. With the experiment deployed in the CARLA simulator, we verify the effectiveness of the safety checking, spatial-temporal encoder, and coordination mechanisms designed in our method by comparative experiments in several challenging scenarios with the defined hazard vehicles (HAZV). Results show that our proposed methodology significantly increases system safety and efficiency in challenging scenarios.
Camouflaged object detection intends to discover the concealed objects hidden in the surroundings. Existing methods follow the bio-inspired framework, which first locates the object and second refines the boundary. We argue that the discovery of camouflaged objects depends on the recurrent search for the object and the boundary. The recurrent processing makes the human tired and helpless, but it is just the advantage of the transformer with global search ability. Therefore, a dual-task interactive transformer is proposed to detect both accurate position of the camouflaged object and its detailed boundary. The boundary feature is considered as Query to improve the camouflaged object detection, and meanwhile the object feature is considered as Query to improve the boundary detection. The camouflaged object detection and the boundary detection are fully interacted by multi-head self-attention. Besides, to obtain the initial object feature and boundary feature, transformer-based backbones are adopted to extract the foreground and background. The foreground is just object, while foreground minus background is considered as boundary. Here, the boundary feature can be obtained from blurry boundary region of the foreground and background. Supervised by the object, the background and the boundary ground truth, the proposed model achieves state-of-the-art performance in public datasets. https://github.com/liuzywen/COD
This paper studies the deception applied on agent in a partially observable Markov decision process. We introduce deceptive kernel function (the kernel) applied to agent's observations in a discrete POMDP. Based on value iteration, value function approximation and POMCP three characteristic algorithms used by agent, we analyze its belief being misled by falsified observations as the kernel's outputs and anticipate its probable threat on agent's reward and potentially other performance. We validate our expectation and explore more detrimental effects of the deception by experimenting on two POMDP problems. The result shows that the kernel applied on agent's observation can affect its belief and substantially lower its resulting rewards; meantime certain implementation of the kernel could induce other abnormal behaviors by the agent.