Recent advancements in federated learning (FL) have greatly facilitated the development of decentralized collaborative applications, particularly in the domain of Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT). However, a critical aspect missing from the current research landscape is the ability to enable data-driven client models with symbolic reasoning capabilities. Specifically, the inherent heterogeneity of participating client devices poses a significant challenge, as each client exhibits unique logic reasoning properties. Failing to consider these device-specific specifications can result in critical properties being missed in the client predictions, leading to suboptimal performance. In this work, we propose a new training paradigm that leverages temporal logic reasoning to address this issue. Our approach involves enhancing the training process by incorporating mechanically generated logic expressions for each FL client. Additionally, we introduce the concept of aggregation clusters and develop a partitioning algorithm to effectively group clients based on the alignment of their temporal reasoning properties. We evaluate the proposed method on two tasks: a real-world traffic volume prediction task consisting of sensory data from fifteen states and a smart city multi-task prediction utilizing synthetic data. The evaluation results exhibit clear improvements, with performance accuracy improved by up to 54% across all sequential prediction models.
Emergency and non-emergency response systems are essential services provided by local governments and critical to protecting lives, the environment, and property. The effective handling of (non-)emergency calls is critical for public safety and well-being. By reducing the burden through non-emergency callers, residents in critical need of assistance through 911 will receive a fast and effective response. Collaborating with the Department of Emergency Communications (DEC) in Nashville, we analyzed 11,796 non-emergency call recordings and developed Auto311, the first automated system to handle 311 non-emergency calls, which (1) effectively and dynamically predicts ongoing non-emergency incident types to generate tailored case reports during the call; (2) itemizes essential information from dialogue contexts to complete the generated reports; and (3) strategically structures system-caller dialogues with optimized confidence. We used real-world data to evaluate the system's effectiveness and deployability. The experimental results indicate that the system effectively predicts incident type with an average F-1 score of 92.54%. Moreover, the system successfully itemizes critical information from relevant contexts to complete reports, evincing a 0.93 average consistency score compared to the ground truth. Additionally, emulations demonstrate that the system effectively decreases conversation turns as the utterance size gets more extensive and categorizes the ongoing call with 94.49% mean accuracy.
* Accepted by AAAI-2024, Sub-Track: Social Impacts
Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) are widely used in automated verification, but there is a lack of interactive tools designed for educational purposes in this field. To address this gap, we present EduSAT, a pedagogical tool specifically developed to support learning and understanding of SAT and SMT solving. EduSAT offers implementations of key algorithms such as the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithm and the Reduced Order Binary Decision Diagram (ROBDD) for SAT solving. Additionally, EduSAT provides solver abstractions for five NP-complete problems beyond SAT and SMT. Users can benefit from EduSAT by experimenting, analyzing, and validating their understanding of SAT and SMT solving techniques. Our tool is accompanied by comprehensive documentation and tutorials, extensive testing, and practical features such as a natural language interface and SAT and SMT formula generators, which also serve as a valuable opportunity for learners to deepen their understanding. Our evaluation of EduSAT demonstrates its high accuracy, achieving 100% correctness across all the implemented SAT and SMT solvers. We release EduSAT as a python package in .whl file, and the source can be identified at https://github.com/zhaoy37/SAT_Solver.
There has been growing interest in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithm design, and reward design is one key component of DRL. Among the various techniques, formal methods integrated with DRL have garnered considerable attention due to their expressiveness and ability to define the requirements for the states and actions of the agent. However, the literature of Signal Temporal Logic (STL) in guiding multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) reward design remains limited. In this paper, we propose a novel STL-guided multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithm. The STL specifications are designed to include both task specifications according to the objective of each agent and safety specifications, and the robustness values of the STL specifications are leveraged to generate rewards. We validate the advantages of our method through empirical studies. The experimental results demonstrate significant performance improvements compared to MARL without STL guidance, along with a remarkable increase in the overall safety rate of the multi-agent systems.
Smart cities operate on computational predictive frameworks that collect, aggregate, and utilize data from large-scale sensor networks. However, these frameworks are prone to multiple sources of data and algorithmic bias, which often lead to unfair prediction results. In this work, we first demonstrate that bias persists at a micro-level both temporally and spatially by studying real city data from Chattanooga, TN. To alleviate the issue of such bias, we introduce Fairguard, a micro-level temporal logic-based approach for fair smart city policy adjustment and generation in complex temporal-spatial domains. The Fairguard framework consists of two phases: first, we develop a static generator that is able to reduce data bias based on temporal logic conditions by minimizing correlations between selected attributes. Then, to ensure fairness in predictive algorithms, we design a dynamic component to regulate prediction results and generate future fair predictions by harnessing logic rules. Evaluations show that logic-enabled static Fairguard can effectively reduce the biased correlations while dynamic Fairguard can guarantee fairness on protected groups at run-time with minimal impact on overall performance.
* This paper was accepted by the 8th ACM/IEEE Conference on Internet of
Things Design and Implementation
An increasing number of monitoring systems have been developed in smart cities to ensure that the real-time operations of a city satisfy safety and performance requirements. However, many existing city requirements are written in English with missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. There is a high demand for assisting city policymakers in converting human-specified requirements to machine-understandable formal specifications for monitoring systems. To tackle this limitation, we build CitySpec, the first intelligent assistant system for requirement specification in smart cities. To create CitySpec, we first collect over 1,500 real-world city requirements across different domains (e.g., transportation and energy) from over 100 cities and extract city-specific knowledge to generate a dataset of city vocabulary with 3,061 words. We also build a translation model and enhance it through requirement synthesis and develop a novel online learning framework with shielded validation. The evaluation results on real-world city requirements show that CitySpec increases the sentence-level accuracy of requirement specification from 59.02% to 86.64%, and has strong adaptability to a new city and a new domain (e.g., the F1 score for requirements in Seattle increases from 77.6% to 93.75% with online learning). After the enhancement from the shield function, CitySpec is now immune to most known textual adversarial inputs (e.g., the attack success rate of DeepWordBug after the shield function is reduced to 0% from 82.73%). We test the CitySpec with 18 participants from different domains. CitySpec shows its strong usability and adaptability to different domains, and also its robustness to malicious inputs.
Physical therapy (PT) is crucial for patients to restore and maintain mobility, function, and well-being. Many on-site activities and body exercises are performed under the supervision of therapists or clinicians. However, the postures of some exercises at home cannot be performed accurately due to the lack of supervision, quality assessment, and self-correction. Therefore, in this paper, we design a new framework, PhysiQ, that continuously tracks and quantitatively measures people's off-site exercise activity through passive sensory detection. In the framework, we create a novel multi-task spatio-temporal Siamese Neural Network that measures the absolute quality through classification and relative quality based on an individual's PT progress through similarity comparison. PhysiQ digitizes and evaluates exercises in three different metrics: range of motions, stability, and repetition.
As more and more monitoring systems have been deployed to smart cities, there comes a higher demand for converting new human-specified requirements to machine-understandable formal specifications automatically. However, these human-specific requirements are often written in English and bring missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. In this paper, we present CitySpec, an intelligent assistant system for requirement specification in smart cities. CitySpec not only helps overcome the language differences brought by English requirements and formal specifications, but also offers solutions to those missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how CitySpec works. Specifically, we present three demos: (1) interactive completion of requirements in CitySpec; (2) human-in-the-loop correction while CitySepc encounters exceptions; (3) online learning in CitySpec.
An increasing number of monitoring systems have been developed in smart cities to ensure that real-time operations of a city satisfy safety and performance requirements. However, many existing city requirements are written in English with missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. There is a high demand for assisting city policy makers in converting human-specified requirements to machine-understandable formal specifications for monitoring systems. To tackle this limitation, we build CitySpec, the first intelligent assistant system for requirement specification in smart cities. To create CitySpec, we first collect over 1,500 real-world city requirements across different domains from over 100 cities and extract city-specific knowledge to generate a dataset of city vocabulary with 3,061 words. We also build a translation model and enhance it through requirement synthesis and develop a novel online learning framework with validation under uncertainty. The evaluation results on real-world city requirements show that CitySpec increases the sentence-level accuracy of requirement specification from 59.02% to 86.64%, and has strong adaptability to a new city and a new domain (e.g., F1 score for requirements in Seattle increases from 77.6% to 93.75% with online learning).