The potential energy loss of aging buildings traps building owners in a cycle of underfunding operations and overpaying maintenance costs. Energy auditors intending to generate an energy model of a target building for performance assessment may struggle to obtain accurate results as the spatial distribution of temperatures is not considered when calculating the U-value of the building envelope. This paper proposes a pixel-level method based on infrared thermography (IRT) that considers two-dimensional (2D) spatial temperature distributions of the outdoor and indoor surfaces of the target wall to generate a 2D U-value map of the wall. The result supports that the proposed method can better reflect the actual thermal insulation performance of the target wall compared to the current IRT-based methods that use a single-point room temperature as input.
* Accepted and presented at 2023 ASCE International Conference on
Computing in Civil Engineering (i3CE 2023)
Multimodal counterfactual reasoning is a vital yet challenging ability for AI systems. It involves predicting the outcomes of hypothetical circumstances based on vision and language inputs, which enables AI models to learn from failures and explore hypothetical scenarios. Despite its importance, there are only a few datasets targeting the counterfactual reasoning abilities of multimodal models. Among them, they only cover reasoning over synthetic environments or specific types of events (e.g. traffic collisions), making them hard to reliably benchmark the model generalization ability in diverse real-world scenarios and reasoning dimensions. To overcome these limitations, we develop a video question answering dataset, ACQUIRED: it consists of 3.9K annotated videos, encompassing a wide range of event types and incorporating both first and third-person viewpoints, which ensures a focus on real-world diversity. In addition, each video is annotated with questions that span three distinct dimensions of reasoning, including physical, social, and temporal, which can comprehensively evaluate the model counterfactual abilities along multiple aspects. We benchmark our dataset against several state-of-the-art language-only and multimodal models and experimental results demonstrate a significant performance gap (>13%) between models and humans. The findings suggest that multimodal counterfactual reasoning remains an open challenge and ACQUIRED is a comprehensive and reliable benchmark for inspiring future research in this direction.
* In Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural
Language Processing (EMNLP)
Reinforcement learning (RL) has emerged as a powerful approach for tackling complex medical decision-making problems such as treatment planning, personalized medicine, and optimizing the scheduling of surgeries and appointments. It has gained significant attention in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) due to its ability to learn optimal strategies for tasks such as dialogue systems, machine translation, and question-answering. This paper presents a review of the RL techniques in NLP, highlighting key advancements, challenges, and applications in healthcare. The review begins by visualizing a roadmap of machine learning and its applications in healthcare. And then it explores the integration of RL with NLP tasks. We examined dialogue systems where RL enables the learning of conversational strategies, RL-based machine translation models, question-answering systems, text summarization, and information extraction. Additionally, ethical considerations and biases in RL-NLP systems are addressed.
In social networks, the discovery of community structures has received considerable attention as a fundamental problem in various network analysis tasks. However, due to privacy concerns or access restrictions, the network structure is often unknown, thereby rendering established community detection approaches ineffective without costly network topology acquisition. To tackle this challenge, we present META-CODE, a novel end-to-end solution for detecting overlapping communities in networks with unknown topology via exploratory learning aided by easy-to-collect node metadata. Specifically, META-CODE consists of three iterative steps in addition to the initial network inference step: 1) node-level community-affiliation embeddings based on graph neural networks (GNNs) trained by our new reconstruction loss, 2) network exploration via community affiliation-based node queries, and 3) network inference using an edge connectivity-based Siamese neural network model from the explored network. Through comprehensive evaluations using five real-world datasets, we demonstrate that META-CODE exhibits (a) its superiority over benchmark community detection methods, (b) empirical evaluations as well as theoretical findings to see the effectiveness of our node query, (c) the influence of each module, and (d) its computational efficiency.
* 15 pages, 8 figures, 5 tables; its conference version was presented
at the ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management
The discovery of community structures in social networks has gained considerable attention as a fundamental problem for various network analysis tasks. However, due to privacy concerns or access restrictions, the network structure is often unknown, thereby rendering established community detection approaches ineffective without costly data acquisition. To tackle this challenge, we present META-CODE, a novel end-to-end solution for detecting overlapping communities in networks with unknown topology via exploratory learning aided by easy-to-collect node metadata. Specifically, META-CODE consists of three steps: 1) initial network inference, 2) node-level community-affiliation embedding based on graph neural networks (GNNs) trained by our new reconstruction loss, and 3) network exploration via community-affiliation-based node queries, where Steps 2 and 3 are performed iteratively. Experimental results demonstrate that META-CODE exhibits (a) superiority over benchmark methods for overlapping community detection, (b) the effectiveness of our training model, and (c) fast network exploration.
* 31st ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge
Management (CIKM 2022) (to appear) (Please cite our conference version.)
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.
Task-oriented dialogue systems aim to answer questions from users and provide immediate help. Therefore, how humans perceive their helpfulness is important. However, neither the human-perceived helpfulness of task-oriented dialogue systems nor its fairness implication has been studied yet. In this paper, we define a dialogue response as helpful if it is relevant & coherent, useful, and informative to a query and study computational measurements of helpfulness. Then, we propose utilizing the helpfulness level of different groups to gauge the fairness of a dialogue system. To study this, we collect human annotations for the helpfulness of dialogue responses and build a classifier that can automatically determine the helpfulness of a response. We design experiments under 3 information-seeking scenarios and collect instances for each from Wikipedia. With collected instances, we use carefully-constructed questions to query the state-of-the-art dialogue systems. Through analysis, we find that dialogue systems tend to be more helpful for highly-developed countries than less-developed countries, uncovering a fairness issue underlying these dialogue systems.
Although various 3D datasets with different functions and scales have been proposed recently, it remains challenging for individuals to complete the whole pipeline of large-scale data collection, sanitization, and annotation. Moreover, the created datasets usually suffer from extremely imbalanced class distribution or partial low-quality data samples. Motivated by this, we explore the procedurally synthetic 3D data generation paradigm to equip individuals with the full capability of creating large-scale annotated photogrammetry point clouds. Specifically, we introduce a synthetic aerial photogrammetry point clouds generation pipeline that takes full advantage of open geospatial data sources and off-the-shelf commercial packages. Unlike generating synthetic data in virtual games, where the simulated data usually have limited gaming environments created by artists, the proposed pipeline simulates the reconstruction process of the real environment by following the same UAV flight pattern on different synthetic terrain shapes and building densities, which ensure similar quality, noise pattern, and diversity with real data. In addition, the precise semantic and instance annotations can be generated fully automatically, avoiding the expensive and time-consuming manual annotation. Based on the proposed pipeline, we present a richly-annotated synthetic 3D aerial photogrammetry point cloud dataset, termed STPLS3D, with more than 16 $km^2$ of landscapes and up to 18 fine-grained semantic categories. For verification purposes, we also provide a parallel dataset collected from four areas in the real environment. Extensive experiments conducted on our datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and quality of the proposed synthetic dataset.
In recent years, photogrammetry has been widely used in many areas to create photorealistic 3D virtual data representing the physical environment. The innovation of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAVs) has provided additional high-resolution imaging capabilities with low cost for mapping a relatively large area of interest. These cutting-edge technologies have caught the US Army and Navy's attention for the purpose of rapid 3D battlefield reconstruction, virtual training, and simulations. Our previous works have demonstrated the importance of information extraction from the derived photogrammetric data to create semantic-rich virtual environments (Chen et al., 2019). For example, an increase of simulation realism and fidelity was achieved by segmenting and replacing photogrammetric trees with game-ready tree models. In this work, we further investigated the semantic information extraction problem and focused on the ground material segmentation and object detection tasks. The main innovation of this work was that we leveraged both the original 2D images and the derived 3D photogrammetric data to overcome the challenges faced when using each individual data source. For ground material segmentation, we utilized an existing convolutional neural network architecture (i.e., 3DMV) which was originally designed for segmenting RGB-D sensed indoor data. We improved its performance for outdoor photogrammetric data by introducing a depth pooling layer in the architecture to take into consideration the distance between the source images and the reconstructed terrain model. To test the performance of our improved 3DMV, a ground truth ground material database was created using data from the One World Terrain (OWT) data repository. Finally, a workflow for importing the segmented ground materials into a virtual simulation scene was introduced, and visual results are reported in this paper.
* Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education
Conference (I/ITSEC) 2021