This paper presents a novel approach to network pruning, targeting block pruning in deep neural networks for edge computing environments. Our method diverges from traditional techniques that utilize proxy metrics, instead employing a direct block removal strategy to assess the impact on classification accuracy. This hands-on approach allows for an accurate evaluation of each block's importance. We conducted extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet datasets using ResNet architectures. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of our method, particularly on large-scale datasets like ImageNet with ResNet50, where it excelled in reducing model size while retaining high accuracy, even when pruning a significant portion of the network. The findings underscore our method's capability in maintaining an optimal balance between model size and performance, especially in resource-constrained edge computing scenarios.
Vision-language models such as CLIP learn a generic text-image embedding from large-scale training data. A vision-language model can be adapted to a new classification task through few-shot prompt tuning. We find that such a prompt tuning process is highly robust to label noises. This intrigues us to study the key reasons contributing to the robustness of the prompt tuning paradigm. We conducted extensive experiments to explore this property and find the key factors are: 1) the fixed classname tokens provide a strong regularization to the optimization of the model, reducing gradients induced by the noisy samples; 2) the powerful pre-trained image-text embedding that is learned from diverse and generic web data provides strong prior knowledge for image classification. Further, we demonstrate that noisy zero-shot predictions from CLIP can be used to tune its own prompt, significantly enhancing prediction accuracy in the unsupervised setting. The code is available at https://github.com/CEWu/PTNL.
This project is centered around building a neural network that is able to recognize ASL letters in images, particularly within the scope of a live video feed. Initial testing results came up short of expectations when both the convolutional network and VGG16 transfer learning approaches failed to generalize in settings of different backgrounds. The use of a pre-trained hand joint detection model was then adopted with the produced joint locations being fed into a fully-connected neural network. The results of this approach exceeded those of prior methods and generalized well to a live video feed application.
Deep models have demonstrated recent success in single-image dehazing. Most prior methods consider fully supervised training and learn from paired clean and hazy images, where a hazy image is synthesized based on a clean image and its estimated depth map. This paradigm, however, can produce low-quality hazy images due to inaccurate depth estimation, resulting in poor generalization of the trained models. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach for generating paired clean-hazy images by leveraging computer graphics. Using a modern game engine, our approach renders crisp clean images and their precise depth maps, based on which high-quality hazy images can be synthesized for training dehazing models. To this end, we present SimHaze: a new synthetic haze dataset. More importantly, we show that training with SimHaze alone allows the latest dehazing models to achieve significantly better performance in comparison to previous dehazing datasets. Our dataset and code will be made publicly available.
Frequent false alarms impede the promotion of unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms in industrial applications. Potential characteristics of false alarms depending on the trained detector are revealed by investigating density probability distributions of prediction scores in the out-of-distribution anomaly detection tasks. An SVM-based classifier is exploited as a post-processing module to identify false alarms from the anomaly map at the object level. Besides, a sample synthesis strategy is devised to incorporate fuzzy prior knowledge on the specific application in the anomaly-free training dataset. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method comprehensively improves the performances of two segmentation models at both image and pixel levels on two industrial applications.
Self-supervised video representation learning has been shown to effectively improve downstream tasks such as video retrieval and action recognition. In this paper, we present the Cascade Positive Retrieval (CPR) that successively mines positive examples w.r.t. the query for contrastive learning in a cascade of stages. Specifically, CPR exploits multiple views of a query example in different modalities, where an alternative view may help find another positive example dissimilar in the query view. We explore the effects of possible CPR configurations in ablations including the number of mining stages, the top similar example selection ratio in each stage, and progressive training with an incremental number of the final Top-k selection. The overall mining quality is measured to reflect the recall across training set classes. CPR reaches a median class mining recall of 83.3%, outperforming previous work by 5.5%. Implementation-wise, CPR is complementary to pretext tasks and can be easily applied to previous work. In the evaluation of pretraining on UCF101, CPR consistently improves existing work and even achieves state-of-the-art R@1 of 56.7% and 24.4% in video retrieval as well as 83.8% and 54.8% in action recognition on UCF101 and HMDB51. For transfer from large video dataset Kinetics400 to UCF101 and HDMB, CPR benefits existing work, showing competitive Top-1 accuracies of 85.1% and 57.4% despite pretraining at a lower resolution and frame sampling rate. The code will be released soon for reproducing the results. The code is available at https://github.com/necla-ml/CPR.
The deployment of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on resource constrained platforms such as mobile devices and embedded systems has been greatly hindered by their high implementation cost, and thus motivated a lot research interest in compressing and accelerating trained CNN models. Among various techniques proposed in literature, structured pruning, especially channel pruning, has gain a lot focus due to 1) its superior performance in memory, computation, and energy reduction; and 2) it is friendly to existing hardware and software libraries. In this paper, we investigate the intermediate results of convolutional layers and present a novel pivoted QR factorization based channel pruning technique that can prune any specified number of input channels of any layer. We also explore more pruning opportunities in ResNet-like architectures by applying two tweaks to our technique. Experiment results on VGG-16 and ResNet-50 models with ImageNet ILSVRC 2012 dataset are very impressive with 4.29X and 2.84X computation reduction while only sacrificing about 1.40\% top-5 accuracy. Compared to many prior works, the pruned models produced by our technique require up to 47.7\% less computation while still achieve higher accuracies.
Design rule check is a critical step in the physical design of integrated circuits to ensure manufacturability. However, it can be done only after a time-consuming detailed routing procedure, which adds drastically to the time of design iterations. With advanced technology nodes, the outcomes of global routing and detailed routing become less correlated, which adds to the difficulty of predicting design rule violations from earlier stages. In this paper, a framework based on neural network ensembles is proposed to predict design rule violation hotspots using information from placement and global routing. A soft voting structure and a PCA-based subset selection scheme are developed on top of a baseline neural network from a recent work. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture achieves significant improvement in model performance compared to the baseline case. For half of test cases, the performance is even better than random forest, a commonly-used ensemble learning model.