Prompt learning has emerged as an efficient and effective approach for transferring foundational Vision-Language Models (e.g., CLIP) to downstream tasks. However, current methods tend to overfit to seen categories, thereby limiting their generalization ability for unseen classes. In this paper, we propose a new method, Decoupled Prompt Learning (DPL), which reformulates the attention in prompt learning to alleviate this problem. Specifically, we theoretically investigate the collaborative process between prompts and instances (i.e., image patches/text tokens) by reformulating the original self-attention into four separate sub-processes. Through detailed analysis, we observe that certain sub-processes can be strengthened to bolster robustness and generalizability by some approximation techniques. Furthermore, we introduce language-conditioned textual prompting based on decoupled attention to naturally preserve the generalization of text input. Our approach is flexible for both visual and textual modalities, making it easily extendable to multi-modal prompt learning. By combining the proposed techniques, our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on three representative benchmarks encompassing 15 image recognition datasets, while maintaining parameter-efficient. Moreover, our DPL does not rely on any auxiliary regularization task or extra training data, further demonstrating its remarkable generalization ability.
Prompt learning has been designed as an alternative to fine-tuning for adapting Vision-language (V-L) models to the downstream tasks. Previous works mainly focus on text prompt while visual prompt works are limited for V-L models. The existing visual prompt methods endure either mediocre performance or unstable training process, indicating the difficulty of visual prompt learning. In this paper, we propose a new Progressive Visual Prompt (ProVP) structure to strengthen the interactions among prompts of different layers. More importantly, our ProVP could effectively propagate the image embeddings to deep layers and behave partially similar to an instance adaptive prompt method. To alleviate generalization deterioration, we further propose a new contrastive feature re-formation, which prevents the serious deviation of the prompted visual feature from the fixed CLIP visual feature distribution. Combining both, our method (ProVP-Ref) is evaluated on 11 image benchmark datasets and achieves 7/11 state-of-theart results on both few-shot and base-to-novel settings. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate the superior performance of visual prompts in V-L models to previous prompt-based methods in downstream tasks. Meanwhile, it implies that our ProVP-Ref shows the best capability to adapt and to generalize.
In this paper, we introduce the NER dataset from CLUE organization (CLUENER2020), a well-defined fine-grained dataset for named entity recognition in Chinese. CLUENER2020 contains 10 categories. Apart from common labels like person, organization, and location, it contains more diverse categories. It is more challenging than current other Chinese NER datasets and could better reflect real-world applications. For comparison, we implement several state-of-the-art baselines as sequence labeling tasks and report human performance, as well as its analysis. To facilitate future work on fine-grained NER for Chinese, we release our dataset, baselines, and leader-board.