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Abstract:This study presents a comparative analysis of the a complex SQL benchmark, TPC-DS, with two existing text-to-SQL benchmarks, BIRD and Spider. Our findings reveal that TPC-DS queries exhibit a significantly higher level of structural complexity compared to the other two benchmarks. This underscores the need for more intricate benchmarks to simulate realistic scenarios effectively. To facilitate this comparison, we devised several measures of structural complexity and applied them across all three benchmarks. The results of this study can guide future research in the development of more sophisticated text-to-SQL benchmarks. We utilized 11 distinct Language Models (LLMs) to generate SQL queries based on the query descriptions provided by the TPC-DS benchmark. The prompt engineering process incorporated both the query description as outlined in the TPC-DS specification and the database schema of TPC-DS. Our findings indicate that the current state-of-the-art generative AI models fall short in generating accurate decision-making queries. We conducted a comparison of the generated queries with the TPC-DS gold standard queries using a series of fuzzy structure matching techniques based on query features. The results demonstrated that the accuracy of the generated queries is insufficient for practical real-world application.

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Abstract:State space models (SSMs) with selection mechanisms and hardware-aware architectures, namely Mamba, have recently demonstrated significant promise in long-sequence modeling. Since the self-attention mechanism in transformers has quadratic complexity with image size and increasing computational demands, the researchers are now exploring how to adapt Mamba for computer vision tasks. This paper is the first comprehensive survey aiming to provide an in-depth analysis of Mamba models in the field of computer vision. It begins by exploring the foundational concepts contributing to Mamba's success, including the state space model framework, selection mechanisms, and hardware-aware design. Next, we review these vision mamba models by categorizing them into foundational ones and enhancing them with techniques such as convolution, recurrence, and attention to improve their sophistication. We further delve into the widespread applications of Mamba in vision tasks, which include their use as a backbone in various levels of vision processing. This encompasses general visual tasks, Medical visual tasks (e.g., 2D / 3D segmentation, classification, and image registration, etc.), and Remote Sensing visual tasks. We specially introduce general visual tasks from two levels: High/Mid-level vision (e.g., Object detection, Segmentation, Video classification, etc.) and Low-level vision (e.g., Image super-resolution, Image restoration, Visual generation, etc.). We hope this endeavor will spark additional interest within the community to address current challenges and further apply Mamba models in computer vision.

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Abstract:Permutation invariance is among the most common symmetry that can be exploited to simplify complex problems in machine learning (ML). There has been a tremendous surge of research activities in building permutation invariant ML architectures. However, less attention is given to how to statistically test for permutation invariance of variables in a multivariate probability distribution where the dimension is allowed to grow with the sample size. Also, in terms of a statistical theory, little is known about how permutation invariance helps with estimation in reducing dimensions. In this paper, we take a step back and examine these questions in several fundamental problems: (i) testing the assumption of permutation invariance of multivariate distributions; (ii) estimating permutation invariant densities; (iii) analyzing the metric entropy of smooth permutation invariant function classes and compare them with their counterparts without imposing permutation invariance; (iv) kernel ridge regression of permutation invariant functions in reproducing kernel Hilbert space. In particular, our methods for (i) and (iv) are based on a sorting trick and (ii) is based on an averaging trick. These tricks substantially simplify the exploitation of permutation invariance.

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Abstract:Deep learning based Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to treat breast ultrasound. Most of them focus on a single ultrasound imaging modality, either using representative static images or the dynamic video of a real-time scan. In fact, these two image modalities are complementary for lesion diagnosis. Dynamic videos provide detailed three-dimensional information about the lesion, while static images capture the typical sections of the lesion. In this work, we propose a multi-modality breast tumor diagnosis model to imitate the diagnosing process of radiologists, which learns the features of both static images and dynamic video and explores the potential relationship between the two modalities. Considering that static images are carefully selected by professional radiologists, we propose to aggregate dynamic video features under the guidance of domain knowledge from static images before fusing multi-modality features. Our work is validated on a breast ultrasound dataset composed of 897 sets of ultrasound images and videos. Experimental results show that our model boosts the performance of Benign/Malignant classification, achieving 90.0% in AUC and 81.7% in accuracy.

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Authors:Yushan Qian, Bo Wang, Ting-En Lin, Yinhe Zheng, Ying Zhu, Dongming Zhao, Yuexian Hou, Yuchuan Wu, Yongbin Li

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Abstract:Empathetic dialogue is a human-like behavior that requires the perception of both affective factors (e.g., emotion status) and cognitive factors (e.g., cause of the emotion). Besides concerning emotion status in early work, the latest approaches study emotion causes in empathetic dialogue. These approaches focus on understanding and duplicating emotion causes in the context to show empathy for the speaker. However, instead of only repeating the contextual causes, the real empathic response often demonstrate a logical and emotion-centered transition from the causes in the context to those in the responses. In this work, we propose an emotion cause transition graph to explicitly model the natural transition of emotion causes between two adjacent turns in empathetic dialogue. With this graph, the concept words of the emotion causes in the next turn can be predicted and used by a specifically designed concept-aware decoder to generate the empathic response. Automatic and human experimental results on the benchmark dataset demonstrate that our method produces more empathetic, coherent, informative, and specific responses than existing models.

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Abstract:Voice-activated systems are integrated into a variety of desktop, mobile, and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. However, voice spoofing attacks, such as impersonation and replay attacks, in which malicious attackers synthesize the voice of a victim or simply replay it, have brought growing security concerns. Existing speaker verification techniques distinguish individual speakers via the spectrographic features extracted from an audible frequency range of voice commands. However, they often have high error rates and/or long delays. In this paper, we explore a new direction of human voice research by scrutinizing the unique characteristics of human speech at the ultrasound frequency band. Our research indicates that the high-frequency ultrasound components (e.g. speech fricatives) from 20 to 48 kHz can significantly enhance the security and accuracy of speaker verification. We propose a speaker verification system, SUPERVOICE that uses a two-stream DNN architecture with a feature fusion mechanism to generate distinctive speaker models. To test the system, we create a speech dataset with 12 hours of audio (8,950 voice samples) from 127 participants. In addition, we create a second spoofed voice dataset to evaluate its security. In order to balance between controlled recordings and real-world applications, the audio recordings are collected from two quiet rooms by 8 different recording devices, including 7 smartphones and an ultrasound microphone. Our evaluation shows that SUPERVOICE achieves 0.58% equal error rate in the speaker verification task, it only takes 120 ms for testing an incoming utterance, outperforming all existing speaker verification systems. Moreover, within 91 ms processing time, SUPERVOICE achieves 0% equal error rate in detecting replay attacks launched by 5 different loudspeakers.

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Abstract:This paper studies the gap between the classical pricing theory and the data-based pricing theory. We focus on the problem of price discrimination with a continuum of buyer types based on a finite sample of observations. Our first set of results provides sharp lower bounds in the worst-case scenario for the discrepancy between any data-based pricing strategies and the theoretical optimal third-degree price discrimination (3PD) strategy (respectively, uniform pricing strategy) derived from the distribution (where the sample is drawn) ranging over a large class of distributions. Consequently, there is an inevitable gap between revenues based on any data-based pricing strategy and the revenue based on the theoretical optimal 3PD (respectively, uniform pricing) strategy. We then propose easy-to-implement data-based 3PD and uniform pricing strategies and show each strategy is minimax optimal in the sense that the gap between their respective revenue and the revenue based on the theoretical optimal 3PD (respectively, uniform pricing) strategy matches our worst-case lower bounds up to constant factors (that are independent of the sample size $n$). We show that 3PD strategies are revenue superior to uniform pricing strategies if and only if the sample size $n$ is large enough. In other words, if $n$ is below a threshold, uniform pricing strategies are revenue superior to 3PD strategies. We further provide upper bounds for the gaps between the welfare generated by our minimax optimal 3PD (respectively, uniform pricing) strategy and the welfare based on the theoretical optimal 3PD (respectively, uniform pricing) strategy.

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Authors:Ying Zhu

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Abstract:When the regression function belongs to the standard smooth classes consisting of univariate functions with derivatives up to the $(\gamma+1)$th order bounded by a common constant everywhere or a.e., it is well known that the minimax optimal rate of convergence in mean squared error (MSE) is $\left(\frac{\sigma^{2}}{n}\right)^{\frac{2\gamma+2}{2\gamma+3}}$ when $\gamma$ is finite and the sample size $n\rightarrow\infty$. From a nonasymptotic viewpoint that considers finite $n$, this paper shows that: for the standard H\"older and Sobolev classes, the minimax optimal rate is $\frac{\sigma^{2}\left(\gamma\vee1\right)}{n}$ when $\frac{n}{\sigma^{2}}\precsim\left(\gamma\vee1\right)^{2\gamma+3}$ and $\left(\frac{\sigma^{2}}{n}\right)^{\frac{2\gamma+2}{2\gamma+3}}$ when $\frac{n}{\sigma^{2}}\succsim\left(\gamma\vee1\right)^{2\gamma+3}$. To establish these results, we derive upper and lower bounds on the covering and packing numbers for the generalized H\"older class where the $k$th ($k=0,...,\gamma$) derivative is bounded from above by a parameter $R_{k}$ and the $\gamma$th derivative is $R_{\gamma+1}-$Lipschitz (and also for the generalized ellipsoid class of smooth functions). Our bounds sharpen the classical metric entropy results for the standard classes, and give the general dependence on $\gamma$ and $R_{k}$. By deriving the minimax optimal MSE rates under $R_{k}=1$, $R_{k}\leq\left(k-1\right)!$ and $R_{k}=k!$ (with the latter two cases motivated in our introduction) with the help of our new entropy bounds, we show a couple of interesting results that cannot be shown with the existing entropy bounds in the literature. For the H\"older class of $d-$variate functions, our result suggests that the classical asymptotic rate $\left(\frac{\sigma^{2}}{n}\right)^{\frac{2\gamma+2}{2\gamma+2+d}}$ could be an underestimate of the MSE in finite samples.

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Abstract:This paper establishes novel results on the metric entropy of ODE solution classes. In addition, we establish a nonasymptotic theory concerning noisy function fitting for nonparametric least squares and least squares based on Picard iterations. Our results on the metric entropy provide answers to "how do the degree of smoothness and the "size" of a class of ODEs affect the "size" of the associated class of solutions?" We establish a general upper bound on the covering number of solution classes associated with the higher order Picard type ODEs, $y^{\left(m\right)}\left(x\right)=f\left(x,\,y\left(x\right),\,y^{'}\left(x\right),\,...,y^{\left(m-1\right)}\left(x\right)\right)$. This result implies, the covering number of the underlying solution class is (basically) bounded from above by the covering number of the class $\mathcal{F}$ that $f$ ranges over. This general bound (basically) yields a sharp scaling when $f$ is parameterized by a $K-$dimensional vector of coefficients belonging to a ball and the noisy recovery is essentially no more difficult than estimating a $K-$dimensional element in the ball. For $m=1$, when $\mathcal{F}$ is an infinitely dimensional smooth class, the solution class ends up with derivatives whose magnitude grows factorially fast -- "a curse of smoothness". We introduce a new notion called the "critical smoothness parameter" to derive an upper bound on the covering number of the solution class. When the sample size is large relative to the degree of smoothness, the rate of convergence associated with the noisy recovery problem obtained by applying this "critical smoothness parameter" based approach improves the rate obtained by applying the general upper bound on the covering number (and vice versa).

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