The study of causal relationships between emotions and causes in texts has recently received much attention. Most works focus on extracting causally related clauses from documents. However, none of these works has considered that the causal relationships among the extracted emotion and cause clauses can only be valid under some specific context clauses. To highlight the context in such special causal relationships, we propose a new task to determine whether or not an input pair of emotion and cause has a valid causal relationship under different contexts and extract the specific context clauses that participate in the causal relationship. Since the task is new for which no existing dataset is available, we conduct manual annotation on a benchmark dataset to obtain the labels for our tasks and the annotations of each context clause's type that can also be used in some other applications. We adopt negative sampling to construct the final dataset to balance the number of documents with and without causal relationships. Based on the constructed dataset, we propose an end-to-end multi-task framework, where we design two novel and general modules to handle the two goals of our task. Specifically, we propose a context masking module to extract the context clauses participating in the causal relationships. We propose a prediction aggregation module to fine-tune the prediction results according to whether the input emotion and causes depend on specific context clauses. Results of extensive comparative experiments and ablation studies demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our proposed framework.
This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) capabilities of the recently released GPT-4V(ision), a Large Multimodal Model (LMM). We assess the model's performance across a range of OCR tasks, including scene text recognition, handwritten text recognition, handwritten mathematical expression recognition, table structure recognition, and information extraction from visually-rich document. The evaluation reveals that GPT-4V performs well in recognizing and understanding Latin contents, but struggles with multilingual scenarios and complex tasks. Specifically, it showed limitations when dealing with non-Latin languages and complex tasks such as handwriting mathematical expression recognition, table structure recognition, and end-to-end semantic entity recognition and pair extraction from document image. Based on these observations, we affirm the necessity and continued research value of specialized OCR models. In general, despite its versatility in handling diverse OCR tasks, GPT-4V does not outperform existing state-of-the-art OCR models. How to fully utilize pre-trained general-purpose LMMs such as GPT-4V for OCR downstream tasks remains an open problem. The study offers a critical reference for future research in OCR with LMMs. Evaluation pipeline and results are available at https://github.com/SCUT-DLVCLab/GPT-4V_OCR.
In autonomous driving, an accurate understanding of environment, e.g., the vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-lane interactions, plays a critical role in many driving tasks such as trajectory prediction and motion planning. Environment information comes from high-definition (HD) map and historical trajectories of vehicles. Due to the heterogeneity of the map data and trajectory data, many data-driven models for trajectory prediction and motion planning extract vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-lane interactions in a separate and sequential manner. However, such a manner may capture biased interpretation of interactions, causing lower prediction and planning accuracy. Moreover, separate extraction leads to a complicated model structure and hence the overall efficiency and scalability are sacrificed. To address the above issues, we propose an environment representation, Temporal Occupancy Flow Graph (TOFG). Specifically, the occupancy flow-based representation unifies the map information and vehicle trajectories into a homogeneous data format and enables a consistent prediction. The temporal dependencies among vehicles can help capture the change of occupancy flow timely to further promote model performance. To demonstrate that TOFG is capable of simplifying the model architecture, we incorporate TOFG with a simple graph attention (GAT) based neural network and propose TOFG-GAT, which can be used for both trajectory prediction and motion planning. Experiment results show that TOFG-GAT achieves better or competitive performance than all the SOTA baselines with less training time.
Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, the era of big data has come. The Internet generates huge amounts of data every day. However, extracting meaningful information from massive data is like looking for a needle in a haystack. Data mining techniques can provide various feasible methods to solve this problem. At present, many sequential rule mining (SRM) algorithms are presented to find sequential rules in databases with sequential characteristics. These rules help people extract a lot of meaningful information from massive amounts of data. How can we achieve compression of mined results and reduce data size to save storage space and transmission time? Until now, there has been little research on the compression of SRM. In this paper, combined with the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle and under the two metrics (support and confidence), we introduce the problem of compression of SRM and also propose a solution named ComSR for MDL-based compressing of sequential rules based on the designed sequential rule coding scheme. To our knowledge, we are the first to use sequential rules to encode an entire database. A heuristic method is proposed to find a set of compact and meaningful sequential rules as much as possible. ComSR has two trade-off algorithms, ComSR_non and ComSR_ful, based on whether the database can be completely compressed. Experiments done on a real dataset with different thresholds show that a set of compact and meaningful sequential rules can be found. This shows that the proposed method works.
Car-following (CF) modeling, an essential component in simulating human CF behaviors, has attracted increasing research interest in the past decades. This paper pushes the state of the art by proposing a novel generative hybrid CF model, which achieves high accuracy in characterizing dynamic human CF behaviors and is able to generate realistic human CF behaviors for any given observed or even unobserved driving style. Specifically, the ability of accurately capturing human CF behaviors is ensured by designing and calibrating an Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) with time-varying parameters. The reason behind is that such time-varying parameters can express both the inter-driver heterogeneity, i.e., diverse driving styles of different drivers, and the intra-driver heterogeneity, i.e., changing driving styles of the same driver. The ability of generating realistic human CF behaviors of any given observed driving style is achieved by applying a neural process (NP) based model. The ability of inferring CF behaviors of unobserved driving styles is supported by exploring the relationship between the calibrated time-varying IDM parameters and an intermediate variable of NP. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed models, we conduct extensive experiments and comparisons, including CF model parameter calibration, CF behavior prediction, and trajectory simulation for different driving styles.