One of the main challenges of multimodal learning is the need to combine heterogeneous modalities (e.g., video, audio, text). For example, video and audio are obtained at much higher rates than text and are roughly aligned in time. They are often not synchronized with text, which comes as a global context, e.g., a title, or a description. Furthermore, video and audio inputs are of much larger volumes, and grow as the video length increases, which naturally requires more compute dedicated to these modalities and makes modeling of long-range dependencies harder. We here decouple the multimodal modeling, dividing it into separate, focused autoregressive models, processing the inputs according to the characteristics of the modalities. We propose a multimodal model, called Mirasol3B, consisting of an autoregressive component for the time-synchronized modalities (audio and video), and an autoregressive component for the context modalities which are not necessarily aligned in time but are still sequential. To address the long-sequences of the video-audio inputs, we propose to further partition the video and audio sequences in consecutive snippets and autoregressively process their representations. To that end, we propose a Combiner mechanism, which models the audio-video information jointly within a timeframe. The Combiner learns to extract audio and video features from raw spatio-temporal signals, and then learns to fuse these features producing compact but expressive representations per snippet. Our approach achieves the state-of-the-art on well established multimodal benchmarks, outperforming much larger models. It effectively addresses the high computational demand of media inputs by both learning compact representations, controlling the sequence length of the audio-video feature representations, and modeling their dependencies in time.
We present a new open-vocabulary detection approach based on detection-oriented image-text pretraining to bridge the gap between image-level pretraining and open-vocabulary object detection. At the pretraining phase, we replace the commonly used classification architecture with the detector architecture, which better serves the region-level recognition needs of detection by enabling the detector heads to learn from noisy image-text pairs. Using only standard contrastive loss and no pseudo-labeling, our approach is a simple yet effective extension of the contrastive learning method to learn emergent object-semantic cues. In addition, we propose a shifted-window learning approach upon window attention to make the backbone representation more robust, translation-invariant, and less biased by the window pattern. On the popular LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark, our approach sets a new state of the art of 40.4 mask AP$_r$ using the common ViT-L backbone, significantly outperforming the best existing approach by +6.5 mask AP$_r$ at system level. On the COCO benchmark, we achieve very competitive 40.8 novel AP without pseudo labeling or weak supervision. In addition, we evaluate our approach on the transfer detection setup, where ours outperforms the baseline significantly. Visualization reveals emerging object locality from the pretraining recipes compared to the baseline. Code and models will be publicly released.
We present Contrastive Feature Masking Vision Transformer (CFM-ViT) - an image-text pretraining methodology that achieves simultaneous learning of image- and region-level representation for open-vocabulary object detection (OVD). Our approach combines the masked autoencoder (MAE) objective into the contrastive learning objective to improve the representation for localization tasks. Unlike standard MAE, we perform reconstruction in the joint image-text embedding space, rather than the pixel space as is customary with the classical MAE method, which causes the model to better learn region-level semantics. Moreover, we introduce Positional Embedding Dropout (PED) to address scale variation between image-text pretraining and detection finetuning by randomly dropping out the positional embeddings during pretraining. PED improves detection performance and enables the use of a frozen ViT backbone as a region classifier, preventing the forgetting of open-vocabulary knowledge during detection finetuning. On LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark, CFM-ViT achieves a state-of-the-art 33.9 AP$r$, surpassing the best approach by 7.6 points and achieves better zero-shot detection transfer. Finally, CFM-ViT acquires strong image-level representation, outperforming the state of the art on 8 out of 12 metrics on zero-shot image-text retrieval benchmarks.
In this paper, we propose a method to learn unified representations of multilingual speech and text with a single model, especially focusing on the purpose of speech synthesis. We represent multilingual speech audio with speech units, the quantized representations of speech features encoded from a self-supervised speech model. Therefore, we can focus on their linguistic content by treating the audio as pseudo text and can build a unified representation of speech and text. Then, we propose to train an encoder-decoder structured model with a Unit-to-Unit Translation (UTUT) objective on multilingual data. Specifically, by conditioning the encoder with the source language token and the decoder with the target language token, the model is optimized to translate the spoken language into that of the target language, in a many-to-many language translation setting. Therefore, the model can build the knowledge of how spoken languages are comprehended and how to relate them to different languages. A single pre-trained model with UTUT can be employed for diverse multilingual speech- and text-related tasks, such as Speech-to-Speech Translation (STS), multilingual Text-to-Speech Synthesis (TTS), and Text-to-Speech Translation (TTST). By conducting comprehensive experiments encompassing various languages, we validate the efficacy of the proposed method across diverse multilingual tasks. Moreover, we show UTUT can perform many-to-many language STS, which has not been previously explored in the literature. Samples are available on https://choijeongsoo.github.io/utut.
We present Region-aware Open-vocabulary Vision Transformers (RO-ViT) - a contrastive image-text pretraining recipe to bridge the gap between image-level pretraining and open-vocabulary object detection. At the pretraining phase, we propose to randomly crop and resize regions of positional embeddings instead of using the whole image positional embeddings. This better matches the use of positional embeddings at region-level in the detection finetuning phase. In addition, we replace the common softmax cross entropy loss in contrastive learning with focal loss to better learn the informative yet difficult examples. Finally, we leverage recent advances in novel object proposals to improve open-vocabulary detection finetuning. We evaluate our full model on the LVIS and COCO open-vocabulary detection benchmarks and zero-shot transfer. RO-ViT achieves a state-of-the-art 32.1 $AP_r$ on LVIS, surpassing the best existing approach by +5.8 points in addition to competitive zero-shot transfer detection. Surprisingly, RO-ViT improves the image-level representation as well and achieves the state of the art on 9 out of 12 metrics on COCO and Flickr image-text retrieval benchmarks, outperforming competitive approaches with larger models.
We present RECLIP (Resource-efficient CLIP), a simple method that minimizes computational resource footprint for CLIP (Contrastive Language Image Pretraining). Inspired by the notion of coarse-to-fine in computer vision, we leverage small images to learn from large-scale language supervision efficiently, and finetune the model with high-resolution data in the end. Since the complexity of the vision transformer heavily depends on input image size, our approach significantly reduces the training resource requirements both in theory and in practice. Using the same batch size and training epoch, RECLIP achieves highly competitive zero-shot classification and image text retrieval accuracy with 6 to 8$\times$ less computational resources and 7 to 9$\times$ fewer FLOPs than the baseline. Compared to the state-of-the-art contrastive learning methods, RECLIP demonstrates 5 to 59$\times$ training resource savings while maintaining highly competitive zero-shot classification and retrieval performance. We hope this work will pave the path for the broader research community to explore language supervised pretraining in more resource-friendly settings.
We present a method that enables synthesizing novel views and novel poses of arbitrary human performers from sparse multi-view images. A key ingredient of our method is a hybrid appearance blending module that combines the advantages of the implicit body NeRF representation and image-based rendering. Existing generalizable human NeRF methods that are conditioned on the body model have shown robustness against the geometric variation of arbitrary human performers. Yet they often exhibit blurry results when generalized onto unseen identities. Meanwhile, image-based rendering shows high-quality results when sufficient observations are available, whereas it suffers artifacts in sparse-view settings. We propose Neural Image-based Avatars (NIA) that exploits the best of those two methods: to maintain robustness under new articulations and self-occlusions while directly leveraging the available (sparse) source view colors to preserve appearance details of new subject identities. Our hybrid design outperforms recent methods on both in-domain identity generalization as well as challenging cross-dataset generalization settings. Also, in terms of the pose generalization, our method outperforms even the per-subject optimized animatable NeRF methods. The video results are available at https://youngjoongunc.github.io/nia
Video Panoptic Segmentation (VPS) aims to achieve comprehensive pixel-level scene understanding by segmenting all pixels and associating objects in a video. Current solutions can be categorized into online and near-online approaches. Evolving over the time, each category has its own specialized designs, making it nontrivial to adapt models between different categories. To alleviate the discrepancy, in this work, we propose a unified approach for online and near-online VPS. The meta architecture of the proposed Video-kMaX consists of two components: within clip segmenter (for clip-level segmentation) and cross-clip associater (for association beyond clips). We propose clip-kMaX (clip k-means mask transformer) and HiLA-MB (Hierarchical Location-Aware Memory Buffer) to instantiate the segmenter and associater, respectively. Our general formulation includes the online scenario as a special case by adopting clip length of one. Without bells and whistles, Video-kMaX sets a new state-of-the-art on KITTI-STEP and VIPSeg for video panoptic segmentation, and VSPW for video semantic segmentation. Code will be made publicly available.
The development of language models have moved from encoder-decoder to decoder-only designs. In addition, the common knowledge has it that the two most popular multimodal tasks, the generative and contrastive tasks, tend to conflict with one another, are hard to accommodate in one architecture, and further need complex adaptations for downstream tasks. We propose a novel paradigm of training with a decoder-only model for multimodal tasks, which is surprisingly effective in jointly learning of these disparate vision-language tasks. This is done with a simple model, called MaMMUT. It consists of a single vision encoder and a text decoder, and is able to accommodate contrastive and generative learning by a novel two-pass approach on the text decoder. We demonstrate that joint learning of these diverse objectives is simple, effective, and maximizes the weight-sharing of the model across these tasks. Furthermore, the same architecture enables straightforward extensions to open-vocabulary object detection and video-language tasks. The model tackles a diverse range of tasks, while being modest in capacity. Our model achieves the state of the art on image-text and text-image retrieval, video question answering and open-vocabulary detection tasks, outperforming much larger and more extensively trained foundational models. It shows very competitive results on VQA and Video Captioning, especially considering its capacity. Ablations confirm the flexibility and advantages of our approach.