The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has brought forth an era of unprecedented connectivity, with an estimated 80 billion smart devices expected to be in operation by the end of 2025. These devices facilitate a multitude of smart applications, enhancing the quality of life and efficiency across various domains. Machine Learning (ML) serves as a crucial technology, not only for analyzing IoT-generated data but also for diverse applications within the IoT ecosystem. For instance, ML finds utility in IoT device recognition, anomaly detection, and even in uncovering malicious activities. This paper embarks on a comprehensive exploration of the security threats arising from ML's integration into various facets of IoT, spanning various attack types including membership inference, adversarial evasion, reconstruction, property inference, model extraction, and poisoning attacks. Unlike previous studies, our work offers a holistic perspective, categorizing threats based on criteria such as adversary models, attack targets, and key security attributes (confidentiality, availability, and integrity). We delve into the underlying techniques of ML attacks in IoT environment, providing a critical evaluation of their mechanisms and impacts. Furthermore, our research thoroughly assesses 65 libraries, both author-contributed and third-party, evaluating their role in safeguarding model and data privacy. We emphasize the availability and usability of these libraries, aiming to arm the community with the necessary tools to bolster their defenses against the evolving threat landscape. Through our comprehensive review and analysis, this paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing discourse on ML-based IoT security, offering valuable insights and practical solutions to secure ML models and data in the rapidly expanding field of artificial intelligence in IoT.
The aspiration of the next generation's autonomous driving (AD) technology relies on the dedicated integration and interaction among intelligent perception, prediction, planning, and low-level control. There has been a huge bottleneck regarding the upper bound of autonomous driving algorithm performance, a consensus from academia and industry believes that the key to surmount the bottleneck lies in data-centric autonomous driving technology. Recent advancement in AD simulation, closed-loop model training, and AD big data engine have gained some valuable experience. However, there is a lack of systematic knowledge and deep understanding regarding how to build efficient data-centric AD technology for AD algorithm self-evolution and better AD big data accumulation. To fill in the identified research gaps, this article will closely focus on reviewing the state-of-the-art data-driven autonomous driving technologies, with an emphasis on the comprehensive taxonomy of autonomous driving datasets characterized by milestone generations, key features, data acquisition settings, etc. Furthermore, we provide a systematic review of the existing benchmark closed-loop AD big data pipelines from the industrial frontier, including the procedure of closed-loop frameworks, key technologies, and empirical studies. Finally, the future directions, potential applications, limitations and concerns are discussed to arouse efforts from both academia and industry for promoting the further development of autonomous driving. The project repository is available at: https://github.com/LincanLi98/Awesome-Data-Centric-Autonomous-Driving.
Advancements in medical imaging and endovascular grafting have facilitated minimally invasive treatments for aortic diseases. Accurate 3D segmentation of the aorta and its branches is crucial for interventions, as inaccurate segmentation can lead to erroneous surgical planning and endograft construction. Previous methods simplified aortic segmentation as a binary image segmentation problem, overlooking the necessity of distinguishing between individual aortic branches. In this paper, we introduce Context Infused Swin-UNet (CIS-UNet), a deep learning model designed for multi-class segmentation of the aorta and thirteen aortic branches. Combining the strengths of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Swin transformers, CIS-UNet adopts a hierarchical encoder-decoder structure comprising a CNN encoder, symmetric decoder, skip connections, and a novel Context-aware Shifted Window Self-Attention (CSW-SA) as the bottleneck block. Notably, CSW-SA introduces a unique utilization of the patch merging layer, distinct from conventional Swin transformers. It efficiently condenses the feature map, providing a global spatial context and enhancing performance when applied at the bottleneck layer, offering superior computational efficiency and segmentation accuracy compared to the Swin transformers. We trained our model on computed tomography (CT) scans from 44 patients and tested it on 15 patients. CIS-UNet outperformed the state-of-the-art SwinUNetR segmentation model, which is solely based on Swin transformers, by achieving a superior mean Dice coefficient of 0.713 compared to 0.697, and a mean surface distance of 2.78 mm compared to 3.39 mm. CIS-UNet's superior 3D aortic segmentation offers improved precision and optimization for planning endovascular treatments. Our dataset and code will be publicly available.
In this study, we delve into the realm of counterfactual reasoning capabilities of large language models (LLMs). Our primary objective is to cultivate the counterfactual thought processes within LLMs and rigorously assess these processes for their validity. Specifically, we introduce a novel task, Counterfactual Logical Modification (CLOMO), and a high-quality human-annotated benchmark. In this task, LLMs must adeptly alter a given argumentative text to uphold a predetermined logical relationship. To effectively evaluate a generation model's counterfactual capabilities, we propose an innovative evaluation metric, the LogicAware Counterfactual Score to directly evaluate the natural language output of LLMs instead of modeling the task as a multiple-choice problem. Analysis shows that the proposed automatic metric aligns well with human preference. Our experimental results show that while LLMs demonstrate a notable capacity for logical counterfactual thinking, there remains a discernible gap between their current abilities and human performance.
This paper proposes the DistillCSE framework, which performs contrastive learning under the self-training paradigm with knowledge distillation. The potential advantage of DistillCSE is its self-enhancing feature: using a base model to provide additional supervision signals, a stronger model may be learned through knowledge distillation. However, the vanilla DistillCSE through the standard implementation of knowledge distillation only achieves marginal improvements due to severe overfitting. The further quantitative analyses demonstrate the reason that the standard knowledge distillation exhibits a relatively large variance of the teacher model's logits due to the essence of contrastive learning. To mitigate the issue induced by high variance, this paper accordingly proposed two simple yet effective solutions for knowledge distillation: a Group-P shuffling strategy as an implicit regularization and the averaging logits from multiple teacher components. Experiments on standard benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed DistillCSE outperforms many strong baseline methods and yields a new state-of-the-art performance.
Medical imaging has witnessed remarkable progress but usually requires a large amount of high-quality annotated data which is time-consuming and costly to obtain. To alleviate this burden, semi-supervised learning has garnered attention as a potential solution. In this paper, we present Meta-Learning for Bootstrapping Medical Image Segmentation (MLB-Seg), a novel method for tackling the challenge of semi-supervised medical image segmentation. Specifically, our approach first involves training a segmentation model on a small set of clean labeled images to generate initial labels for unlabeled data. To further optimize this bootstrapping process, we introduce a per-pixel weight mapping system that dynamically assigns weights to both the initialized labels and the model's own predictions. These weights are determined using a meta-process that prioritizes pixels with loss gradient directions closer to those of clean data, which is based on a small set of precisely annotated images. To facilitate the meta-learning process, we additionally introduce a consistency-based Pseudo Label Enhancement (PLE) scheme that improves the quality of the model's own predictions by ensembling predictions from various augmented versions of the same input. In order to improve the quality of the weight maps obtained through multiple augmentations of a single input, we introduce a mean teacher into the PLE scheme. This method helps to reduce noise in the weight maps and stabilize its generation process. Our extensive experimental results on public atrial and prostate segmentation datasets demonstrate that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results under semi-supervision. Our code is available at https://github.com/aijinrjinr/MLB-Seg.
Micro-ultrasound (micro-US) is a novel 29-MHz ultrasound technique that provides 3-4 times higher resolution than traditional ultrasound, delivering comparable accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer to MRI but at a lower cost. Accurate prostate segmentation is crucial for prostate volume measurement, cancer diagnosis, prostate biopsy, and treatment planning. This paper proposes a deep learning approach for automated, fast, and accurate prostate segmentation on micro-US images. Prostate segmentation on micro-US is challenging due to artifacts and indistinct borders between the prostate, bladder, and urethra in the midline. We introduce MicroSegNet, a multi-scale annotation-guided Transformer UNet model to address this challenge. During the training process, MicroSegNet focuses more on regions that are hard to segment (challenging regions), where expert and non-expert annotations show discrepancies. We achieve this by proposing an annotation-guided cross entropy loss that assigns larger weight to pixels in hard regions and lower weight to pixels in easy regions. We trained our model using micro-US images from 55 patients, followed by evaluation on 20 patients. Our MicroSegNet model achieved a Dice coefficient of 0.942 and a Hausdorff distance of 2.11 mm, outperforming several state-of-the-art segmentation methods, as well as three human annotators with different experience levels. We will make our code and dataset publicly available to promote transparency and collaboration in research.
Early diagnosis of prostate cancer significantly improves a patient's 5-year survival rate. Biopsy of small prostate cancers is improved with image-guided biopsy. MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy is sensitive to smaller tumors but is underutilized due to the high cost of MRI and fusion equipment. Micro-ultrasound (micro-US), a novel high-resolution ultrasound technology, provides a cost-effective alternative to MRI while delivering comparable diagnostic accuracy. However, the interpretation of micro-US is challenging due to subtle gray scale changes indicating cancer vs normal tissue. This challenge can be addressed by training urologists with a large dataset of micro-US images containing the ground truth cancer outlines. Such a dataset can be mapped from surgical specimens (histopathology) onto micro-US images via image registration. In this paper, we present a semi-automated pipeline for registering in vivo micro-US images with ex vivo whole-mount histopathology images. Our pipeline begins with the reconstruction of pseudo-whole-mount histopathology images and a 3D micro-US volume. Each pseudo-whole-mount histopathology image is then registered with the corresponding axial micro-US slice using a two-stage approach that estimates an affine transformation followed by a deformable transformation. We evaluated our registration pipeline using micro-US and histopathology images from 18 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The results showed a Dice coefficient of 0.94 and a landmark error of 2.7 mm, indicating the accuracy of our registration pipeline. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately aligning micro-US and histopathology images. To promote transparency and collaboration in research, we will make our code and dataset publicly available.
This paper aims to improve contrastive learning for sentence embeddings from two perspectives: handling dropout noise and addressing feature corruption. Specifically, for the first perspective, we identify that the dropout noise from negative pairs affects the model's performance. Therefore, we propose a simple yet effective method to deal with such type of noise. Secondly, we pinpoint the rank bottleneck of current solutions to feature corruption and propose a dimension-wise contrastive learning objective to address this issue. Both proposed methods are generic and can be applied to any contrastive learning based models for sentence embeddings. Experimental results on standard benchmarks demonstrate that combining both proposed methods leads to a gain of 1.8 points compared to the strong baseline SimCSE configured with BERT base. Furthermore, applying the proposed method to DiffCSE, another strong contrastive learning based baseline, results in a gain of 1.4 points.