A recent trend among generalizable novel view synthesis methods is to learn a rendering operator acting over single camera rays. This approach is promising because it removes the need for explicit volumetric rendering, but it effectively treats target images as collections of independent pixels. Here, we propose to learn a global rendering operator acting over all camera rays jointly. We show that the right representation to enable such rendering is the 5-dimensional plane sweep volume, consisting of the projection of the input images on a set of planes facing the target camera. Based on this understanding, we introduce our Convolutional Global Latent Renderer (ConvGLR), an efficient convolutional architecture that performs the rendering operation globally in a low-resolution latent space. Experiments on various datasets under sparse and generalizable setups show that our approach consistently outperforms existing methods by significant margins.
While current multi-frame restoration methods combine information from multiple input images using 2D alignment techniques, recent advances in novel view synthesis are paving the way for a new paradigm relying on volumetric scene representations. In this work, we introduce the first 3D-based multi-frame denoising method that significantly outperforms its 2D-based counterparts with lower computational requirements. Our method extends the multiplane image (MPI) framework for novel view synthesis by introducing a learnable encoder-renderer pair manipulating multiplane representations in feature space. The encoder fuses information across views and operates in a depth-wise manner while the renderer fuses information across depths and operates in a view-wise manner. The two modules are trained end-to-end and learn to separate depths in an unsupervised way, giving rise to Multiplane Feature (MPF) representations. Experiments on the Spaces and Real Forward-Facing datasets as well as on raw burst data validate our approach for view synthesis, multi-frame denoising, and view synthesis under noisy conditions.
Behavior of neural networks is irremediably determined by the specific loss and data used during training. However it is often desirable to tune the model at inference time based on external factors such as preferences of the user or dynamic characteristics of the data. This is especially important to balance the perception-distortion trade-off of ill-posed image-to-image translation tasks. In this work, we propose to optimize a parametric tunable convolutional layer, which includes a number of different kernels, using a parametric multi-loss, which includes an equal number of objectives. Our key insight is to use a shared set of parameters to dynamically interpolate both the objectives and the kernels. During training, these parameters are sampled at random to explicitly optimize all possible combinations of objectives and consequently disentangle their effect into the corresponding kernels. During inference, these parameters become interactive inputs of the model hence enabling reliable and consistent control over the model behavior. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our tunable convolutions effectively work as a drop-in replacement for traditional convolutions in existing neural networks at virtually no extra computational cost, outperforming state-of-the-art control strategies in a wide range of applications; including image denoising, deblurring, super-resolution, and style transfer.
High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is of fundamental importance in modern digital photography pipelines and used to produce a high-quality photograph with well exposed regions despite varying illumination across the image. This is typically achieved by merging multiple low dynamic range (LDR) images taken at different exposures. However, over-exposed regions and misalignment errors due to poorly compensated motion result in artefacts such as ghosting. In this paper, we present a new HDR imaging technique that specifically models alignment and exposure uncertainties to produce high quality HDR results. We introduce a strategy that learns to jointly align and assess the alignment and exposure reliability using an HDR-aware, uncertainty-driven attention map that robustly merges the frames into a single high quality HDR image. Further, we introduce a progressive, multi-stage image fusion approach that can flexibly merge any number of LDR images in a permutation-invariant manner. Experimental results show our method can produce better quality HDR images with up to 0.8dB PSNR improvement to the state-of-the-art, and subjective improvements in terms of better detail, colours, and fewer artefacts.
This paper reviews the first NTIRE challenge on quality enhancement of compressed video, with a focus on the proposed methods and results. In this challenge, the new Large-scale Diverse Video (LDV) dataset is employed. The challenge has three tracks. Tracks 1 and 2 aim at enhancing the videos compressed by HEVC at a fixed QP, while Track 3 is designed for enhancing the videos compressed by x265 at a fixed bit-rate. Besides, the quality enhancement of Tracks 1 and 3 targets at improving the fidelity (PSNR), and Track 2 targets at enhancing the perceptual quality. The three tracks totally attract 482 registrations. In the test phase, 12 teams, 8 teams and 11 teams submitted the final results of Tracks 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The proposed methods and solutions gauge the state-of-the-art of video quality enhancement. The homepage of the challenge: https://github.com/RenYang-home/NTIRE21_VEnh
Recurrent models are becoming a popular choice for video enhancement tasks such as video denoising. In this work, we focus on their stability as dynamical systems and show that they tend to fail catastrophically at inference time on long video sequences. To address this issue, we (1) introduce a diagnostic tool which produces adversarial input sequences optimized to trigger instabilities and that can be interpreted as visualizations of spatio-temporal receptive fields, and (2) propose two approaches to enforce the stability of a model: constraining the spectral norm or constraining the stable rank of its convolutional layers. We then introduce Stable Rank Normalization of the Layers (SRNL), a new algorithm that enforces these constraints, and verify experimentally that it successfully results in stable recurrent video processing.