The advent of artificial intelligence, especially the progress of deep neural networks, is expected to revolutionize genetic research and offer unprecedented potential to decode the complex relationships between genetic variants and disease phenotypes, which could mark a significant step toward improving our understanding of the disease etiology. While deep neural networks hold great promise for genetic association analysis, limited research has been focused on developing neural-network-based tests to dissect complex genotype-phenotype associations. This complexity arises from the opaque nature of neural networks and the absence of defined limiting distributions. We have previously developed a kernel-based neural network model (KNN) that synergizes the strengths of linear mixed models with conventional neural networks. KNN adopts a computationally efficient minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimator (MINQUE) algorithm and uses KNN structure to capture the complex relationship between large-scale sequencing data and a disease phenotype of interest. In the KNN framework, we introduce a MINQUE-based test to assess the joint association of genetic variants with the phenotype, which considers non-linear and non-additive effects and follows a mixture of chi-square distributions. We also construct two additional tests to evaluate and interpret linear and non-linear/non-additive genetic effects, including interaction effects. Our simulations show that our method consistently controls the type I error rate under various conditions and achieves greater power than a commonly used sequence kernel association test (SKAT), especially when involving non-linear and interaction effects. When applied to real data from the UK Biobank, our approach identified genes associated with hippocampal volume, which can be further replicated and evaluated for their role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
The recent development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, especially the advance of deep neural network (DNN) technology, has revolutionized many fields. While DNN plays a central role in modern AI technology, it has been rarely used in sequencing data analysis due to challenges brought by high-dimensional sequencing data (e.g., overfitting). Moreover, due to the complexity of neural networks and their unknown limiting distributions, building association tests on neural networks for genetic association analysis remains a great challenge. To address these challenges and fill the important gap of using AI in high-dimensional sequencing data analysis, we introduce a new kernel-based neural network (KNN) test for complex association analysis of sequencing data. The test is built on our previously developed KNN framework, which uses random effects to model the overall effects of high-dimensional genetic data and adopts kernel-based neural network structures to model complex genotype-phenotype relationships. Based on KNN, a Wald-type test is then introduced to evaluate the joint association of high-dimensional genetic data with a disease phenotype of interest, considering non-linear and non-additive effects (e.g., interaction effects). Through simulations, we demonstrated that our proposed method attained higher power compared to the sequence kernel association test (SKAT), especially in the presence of non-linear and interaction effects. Finally, we apply the methods to the whole genome sequencing (WGS) dataset from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study, investigating new genes associated with the hippocampal volume change over time.
The continuous thriving of the Blockchain society motivates research in novel designs of schemes supporting cryptocurrencies. Previously multiple Proof-of-Deep-Learning(PoDL) consensuses have been proposed to replace hashing with useful work such as deep learning model training tasks. The energy will be more efficiently used while maintaining the ledger. However deep learning models are problem-specific and can be extremely complex. Current PoDL consensuses still require much work to realize in the real world. In this paper, we proposed a novel consensus named Proof-of-Federated-Learning-Subchain(PoFLSC) to fill the gap. We applied a subchain to record the training, challenging, and auditing activities and emphasized the importance of valuable datasets in partner selection. We simulated 20 miners in the subchain to demonstrate the effectiveness of PoFLSC. When we reduce the pool size concerning the reservation priority order, the drop rate difference in the performance in different scenarios further exhibits that the miner with a higher Shapley Value (SV) will gain a better opportunity to be selected when the size of the subchain pool is limited. In the conducted experiments, the PoFLSC consensus supported the subchain manager to be aware of reservation priority and the core partition of contributors to establish and maintain a competitive subchain.
Neural networks (NN) play a central role in modern Artificial intelligence (AI) technology and has been successfully used in areas such as natural language processing and image recognition. While majority of NN applications focus on prediction and classification, there are increasing interests in studying statistical inference of neural networks. The study of NN statistical inference can enhance our understanding of NN statistical proprieties. Moreover, it can facilitate the NN-based hypothesis testing that can be applied to hypothesis-driven clinical and biomedical research. In this paper, we propose a sieve quasi-likelihood ratio test based on NN with one hidden layer for testing complex associations. The test statistic has asymptotic chi-squared distribution, and therefore it is computationally efficient and easy for implementation in real data analysis. The validity of the asymptotic distribution is investigated via simulations. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the proposed test by performing a genetic association analysis of the sequencing data from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI).
Transfer learning has emerged as a powerful technique in many application problems, such as computer vision and natural language processing. However, this technique is largely ignored in application to genetic data analysis. In this paper, we combine transfer learning technique with a neural network based method(expectile neural networks). With transfer learning, instead of starting the learning process from scratch, we start from one task that have been learned when solving a different task. We leverage previous learnings and avoid starting from scratch to improve the model performance by passing information gained in different but related task. To demonstrate the performance, we run two real data sets. By using transfer learning algorithm, the performance of expectile neural networks is improved compared to expectile neural network without using transfer learning technique.
Accurately segmenting temporal frames of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a crucial step in various real-time MRI guided cardiac interventions. To achieve fast and accurate visual assistance, there are strict requirements on the maximum latency and minimum throughput of the segmentation framework. State-of-the-art neural networks on this task are mostly hand-crafted to satisfy these constraints while achieving high accuracy. On the other hand, while existing literature have demonstrated the power of neural architecture search (NAS) in automatically identifying the best neural architectures for various medical applications, they are mostly guided by accuracy, sometimes with computation complexity, and the importance of real-time constraints are overlooked. A major challenge is that such constraints are non-differentiable and are thus not compatible with the widely used differentiable NAS frameworks. In this paper, we present a strategy that directly handles real-time constraints in a differentiable NAS framework named RT-DNAS. Experiments on extended 2017 MICCAI ACDC dataset show that compared with state-of-the-art manually and automatically designed architectures, RT-DNAS is able to identify ones with better accuracy while satisfying the real-time constraints.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have demonstrated their great potential in recent years, exceeding the per-formance of human experts in a wide range of applications. Due to their large sizes, however, compressiontechniques such as weight quantization and pruning are usually applied before they can be accommodated onthe edge. It is generally believed that quantization leads to performance degradation, and plenty of existingworks have explored quantization strategies aiming at minimum accuracy loss. In this paper, we argue thatquantization, which essentially imposes regularization on weight representations, can sometimes help toimprove accuracy. We conduct comprehensive experiments on three widely used applications: fully con-nected network (FCN) for biomedical image segmentation, convolutional neural network (CNN) for imageclassification on ImageNet, and recurrent neural network (RNN) for automatic speech recognition, and experi-mental results show that quantization can improve the accuracy by 1%, 1.95%, 4.23% on the three applicationsrespectively with 3.5x-6.4x memory reduction.
* 11 pages, 3 figures, 10 tables, accepted by the ACM Journal on
Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC)
The genetic etiologies of common diseases are highly complex and heterogeneous. Classic statistical methods, such as linear regression, have successfully identified numerous genetic variants associated with complex diseases. Nonetheless, for most complex diseases, the identified variants only account for a small proportion of heritability. Challenges remain to discover additional variants contributing to complex diseases. Expectile regression is a generalization of linear regression and provides completed information on the conditional distribution of a phenotype of interest. While expectile regression has many nice properties and holds great promise for genetic data analyses (e.g., investigating genetic variants predisposing to a high-risk population), it has been rarely used in genetic research. In this paper, we develop an expectile neural network (ENN) method for genetic data analyses of complex diseases. Similar to expectile regression, ENN provides a comprehensive view of relationships between genetic variants and disease phenotypes and can be used to discover genetic variants predisposing to sub-populations (e.g., high-risk groups). We further integrate the idea of neural networks into ENN, making it capable of capturing non-linear and non-additive genetic effects (e.g., gene-gene interactions). Through simulations, we showed that the proposed method outperformed an existing expectile regression when there exist complex relationships between genetic variants and disease phenotypes. We also applied the proposed method to the genetic data from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment(SAGE), investigating the relationships of candidate genes with smoking quantity.
Due to increasing privacy concerns, neural network (NN) based secure inference (SI) schemes that simultaneously hide the client inputs and server models attract major research interests. While existing works focused on developing secure protocols for NN-based SI, in this work, we take a different approach. We propose NASS, an integrated framework to search for tailored NN architectures designed specifically for SI. In particular, we propose to model cryptographic protocols as design elements with associated reward functions. The characterized models are then adopted in a joint optimization with predicted hyperparameters in identifying the best NN architectures that balance prediction accuracy and execution efficiency. In the experiment, it is demonstrated that we can achieve the best of both worlds by using NASS, where the prediction accuracy can be improved from 81.6% to 84.6%, while the inference runtime is reduced by 2x and communication bandwidth by 1.9x on the CIFAR-10 dataset.
* 8 pages, 6 figures, in Proceedings of ECAI 2020, the 24th European
Conference on Artificial Intelligence