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Generative machine learning methods such as large-language models are revolutionizing the creation of text and images. While these models are powerful they also harness a large amount of computational resources. The transformer is a key component in large language models that aims to generate a suitable completion of a given partial sequence. In this work, we investigate transformer architectures under the lens of fault-tolerant quantum computing. The input model is one where pre-trained weight matrices are given as block encodings to construct the query, key, and value matrices for the transformer. As a first step, we show how to prepare a block encoding of the self-attention matrix, with a row-wise application of the softmax function using the Hadamard product. In addition, we combine quantum subroutines to construct important building blocks in the transformer, the residual connection, layer normalization, and the feed-forward neural network. Our subroutines prepare an amplitude encoding of the transformer output, which can be measured to obtain a prediction. We discuss the potential and challenges for obtaining a quantum advantage.

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The complete learning of an $n$-qubit quantum state requires samples exponentially in $n$. Several works consider subclasses of quantum states that can be learned in polynomial sample complexity such as stabilizer states or high-temperature Gibbs states. Other works consider a weaker sense of learning, such as PAC learning and shadow tomography. In this work, we consider learning states that are close to neural network quantum states, which can efficiently be represented by a graphical model called restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). To this end, we exhibit robustness results for efficient provable two-hop neighborhood learning algorithms for ferromagnetic and locally consistent RBMs. We consider the $L_p$-norm as a measure of closeness, including both total variation distance and max-norm distance in the limit. Our results allow certain quantum states to be learned with a sample complexity \textit{exponentially} better than naive tomography. We hence provide new classes of efficiently learnable quantum states and apply new strategies to learn them.

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