We posit that to achieve superhuman agents, future models require superhuman feedback in order to provide an adequate training signal. Current approaches commonly train reward models from human preferences, which may then be bottlenecked by human performance level, and secondly these separate frozen reward models cannot then learn to improve during LLM training. In this work, we study Self-Rewarding Language Models, where the language model itself is used via LLM-as-a-Judge prompting to provide its own rewards during training. We show that during Iterative DPO training that not only does instruction following ability improve, but also the ability to provide high-quality rewards to itself. Fine-tuning Llama 2 70B on three iterations of our approach yields a model that outperforms many existing systems on the AlpacaEval 2.0 leaderboard, including Claude 2, Gemini Pro, and GPT-4 0613. While only a preliminary study, this work opens the door to the possibility of models that can continually improve in both axes.
Practitioners commonly align large language models using pairwise preferences, i.e., given labels of the type response A is preferred to response B for a given input. Perhaps less commonly, methods have also been developed for binary feedback, i.e. training models given labels of type response A is good or bad. We show how an existing performant binary feedback method, the Cringe Loss (Adolphs et al., 2022), can be generalized to the pairwise preference setting using a simple soft margin extension. Pairwise Cringe Loss is straightforward to implement and efficient to train, and we find it outperforms state-of-the-art preference optimization algorithms such as PPO and DPO on the AlpacaFarm benchmark.
Soft attention in Transformer-based Large Language Models (LLMs) is susceptible to incorporating irrelevant information from the context into its latent representations, which adversely affects next token generations. To help rectify these issues, we introduce System 2 Attention (S2A), which leverages the ability of LLMs to reason in natural language and follow instructions in order to decide what to attend to. S2A regenerates the input context to only include the relevant portions, before attending to the regenerated context to elicit the final response. In experiments, S2A outperforms standard attention-based LLMs on three tasks containing opinion or irrelevant information, QA, math word problems and longform generation, where S2A increases factuality and objectivity, and decreases sycophancy.
Recent progress in using machine learning models for reasoning tasks has been driven by novel model architectures, large-scale pre-training protocols, and dedicated reasoning datasets for fine-tuning. In this work, to further pursue these advances, we introduce a new data generator for machine reasoning that integrates with an embodied agent. The generated data consists of templated text queries and answers, matched with world-states encoded into a database. The world-states are a result of both world dynamics and the actions of the agent. We show the results of several baseline models on instantiations of train sets. These include pre-trained language models fine-tuned on a text-formatted representation of the database, and graph-structured Transformers operating on a knowledge-graph representation of the database. We find that these models can answer some questions about the world-state, but struggle with others. These results hint at new research directions in designing neural reasoning models and database representations. Code to generate the data will be released at github.com/facebookresearch/neuralmemory
We present BlenderBot 3x, an update on the conversational model BlenderBot 3, which is now trained using organic conversation and feedback data from participating users of the system in order to improve both its skills and safety. We are publicly releasing the participating de-identified interaction data for use by the research community, in order to spur further progress. Training models with organic data is challenging because interactions with people "in the wild" include both high quality conversations and feedback, as well as adversarial and toxic behavior. We study techniques that enable learning from helpful teachers while avoiding learning from people who are trying to trick the model into unhelpful or toxic responses. BlenderBot 3x is both preferred in conversation to BlenderBot 3, and is shown to produce safer responses in challenging situations. While our current models are still far from perfect, we believe further improvement can be achieved by continued use of the techniques explored in this work.
In recent years, large pre-trained language models (LLMs) have demonstrated the ability to follow instructions and perform novel tasks from a few examples. The possibility to parameterise an LLM through such in-context examples widens their capability at a much lower cost than finetuning. We extend this line of reasoning and present a method which further expands the capabilities of an LLM by embedding it within an algorithm or program. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we present an illustrative example of evidence-supported question-answering. We obtain a 6.4\% improvement over the chain of thought baseline through a more algorithmic approach without any finetuning. Furthermore, we highlight recent work from this perspective and discuss the advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the standard approaches.
Large language models have been shown to struggle with limited context memory and multi-step reasoning. We propose a simple method for solving both of these problems by allowing the model to take Self-Notes. Unlike recent scratchpad approaches, the model can deviate from the input context at any time to explicitly think. This allows the model to recall information and perform reasoning on the fly as it reads the context, thus extending its memory and enabling multi-step reasoning. Our experiments on multiple tasks demonstrate that our method can successfully generalize to longer and more complicated instances from their training setup by taking Self-Notes at inference time.
The success of transformer models trained with a language modeling objective brings a promising opportunity to the reinforcement learning framework. Decision Transformer is a step towards this direction, showing how to train transformers with a similar next-step prediction objective on offline data. Another important development in this area is the recent emergence of large-scale datasets collected from the internet, such as the ones composed of tutorial videos with captions where people talk about what they are doing. To take advantage of this language component, we propose a novel method for unifying language reasoning with actions in a single policy. Specifically, we augment a transformer policy with word outputs, so it can generate textual captions interleaved with actions. When tested on the most challenging task in BabyAI, with captions describing next subgoals, our reasoning policy consistently outperforms the caption-free baseline.
* Reincarnating Reinforcement Learning Workshop at ICLR 2023
Video understanding tasks take many forms, from action detection to visual query localization and spatio-temporal grounding of sentences. These tasks differ in the type of inputs (only video, or video-query pair where query is an image region or sentence) and outputs (temporal segments or spatio-temporal tubes). However, at their core they require the same fundamental understanding of the video, i.e., the actors and objects in it, their actions and interactions. So far these tasks have been tackled in isolation with individual, highly specialized architectures, which do not exploit the interplay between tasks. In contrast, in this paper, we present a single, unified model for tackling query-based video understanding in long-form videos. In particular, our model can address all three tasks of the Ego4D Episodic Memory benchmark which entail queries of three different forms: given an egocentric video and a visual, textual or activity query, the goal is to determine when and where the answer can be seen within the video. Our model design is inspired by recent query-based approaches to spatio-temporal grounding, and contains modality-specific query encoders and task-specific sliding window inference that allow multi-task training with diverse input modalities and different structured outputs. We exhaustively analyze relationships among the tasks and illustrate that cross-task learning leads to improved performance on each individual task, as well as the ability to generalize to unseen tasks, such as zero-shot spatial localization of language queries.
Developing agents that can execute multiple skills by learning from pre-collected datasets is an important problem in robotics, where online interaction with the environment is extremely time-consuming. Moreover, manually designing reward functions for every single desired skill is prohibitive. Prior works targeted these challenges by learning goal-conditioned policies from offline datasets without manually specified rewards, through hindsight relabelling. These methods suffer from the issue of sparsity of rewards, and fail at long-horizon tasks. In this work, we propose a novel self-supervised learning phase on the pre-collected dataset to understand the structure and the dynamics of the model, and shape a dense reward function for learning policies offline. We evaluate our method on three continuous control tasks, and show that our model significantly outperforms existing approaches, especially on tasks that involve long-term planning.