We investigate THz communication uplink multiple access using cascaded intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) assuming correlated channels. Two independent objectives to be achieved via adjusting the phases of the cascaded IRSs: 1) maximizing the received rate of a desired user under interference from the second user and 2) maximizing the sum rate of both users. The resulting optimization problems are non-convex. For the first objective, we devise a sub-optimal analytical solution by maximizing the received power of the desired user, however, this results in an over determined system. Approximate solutions using pseudo-inverse and block-based approaches are attempted. For the second objective, a loose upperbound is derived and an exhaustive search solution is utilized. We then use deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to solve both objectives. Results reveal the suitability of DRL for such complex configurations. For the first objective, the DRL-based solution is superior to the sub-optimal mathematical methods, while for the second objective, it produces sum rates almost close to the exhaustive search. Further, the results reveal that as the correlation-coefficient increases, the sum rate of DRL increases, since it benefits from the presence of correlation in the channel to improve statistical learning.
Modern representation learning methods may fail to adapt quickly under non-stationarity since they suffer from the problem of catastrophic forgetting and decaying plasticity. Such problems prevent learners from fast adaptation to changes since they result in increasing numbers of saturated features and forgetting useful features when presented with new experiences. Hence, these methods are rendered ineffective for continual learning. This paper proposes Utility-based Perturbed Gradient Descent (UPGD), an online representation-learning algorithm well-suited for continual learning agents with no knowledge about task boundaries. UPGD protects useful weights or features from forgetting and perturbs less useful ones based on their utilities. Our empirical results show that UPGD alleviates catastrophic forgetting and decaying plasticity, enabling modern representation learning methods to work in the continual learning setting.
Full-duplex (FD) systems have been introduced to provide high data rates for beyond fifth-generation wireless networks through simultaneous transmission of information over the same frequency resources. However, the operation of FD systems is practically limited by the self-interference (SI), and efficient SI cancelers are sought to make the FD systems realizable. Typically, polynomial-based cancelers are employed to mitigate the SI; nevertheless, they suffer from high complexity. This article proposes two novel hybrid-layers neural network (NN) architectures to cancel the SI with low complexity. The first architecture is referred to as hybrid-convolutional recurrent NN (HCRNN), whereas the second is termed as hybrid-convolutional recurrent dense NN (HCRDNN). In contrast to the state-of-the-art NNs that employ dense or recurrent layers for SI modeling, the proposed NNs exploit, in a novel manner, a combination of different hidden layers (e.g., convolutional, recurrent, and/or dense) in order to model the SI with lower computational complexity than the polynomial and the state-of-the-art NN-based cancelers. The key idea behind using hybrid layers is to build an NN model, which makes use of the characteristics of the different layers employed in its architecture. More specifically, in the HCRNN, a convolutional layer is employed to extract the input data features using a reduced network scale. Moreover, a recurrent layer is then applied to assist in learning the temporal behavior of the input signal from the localized feature map of the convolutional layer. In the HCRDNN, an additional dense layer is exploited to add another degree of freedom for adapting the NN settings in order to achieve the best compromise between the cancellation performance and computational complexity. Complexity analysis and numerical simulations are provided to prove the superiority of the proposed architectures.
Optoelectronic tweezer-driven microrobots (OETdMs) are a versatile micromanipulation technology based on the use of light induced dielectrophoresis to move small dielectric structures (microrobots) across a photoconductive substrate. The microrobots in turn can be used to exert forces on secondary objects and carry out a wide range of micromanipulation operations, including collecting, transporting and depositing microscopic cargos. In contrast to alternative (direct) micromanipulation techniques, OETdMs are relatively gentle, making them particularly well suited to interacting with sensitive objects such as biological cells. However, at present such systems are used exclusively under manual control by a human operator. This limits the capacity for simultaneous control of multiple microrobots, reducing both experimental throughput and the possibility of cooperative multi-robot operations. In this article, we describe an approach to automated targeting and path planning to enable open-loop control of multiple microrobots. We demonstrate the performance of the method in practice, using microrobots to simultaneously collect, transport and deposit silica microspheres. Using computational simulations based on real microscopic image data, we investigate the capacity of microrobots to collect target cells from within a dissociated tissue culture. Our results indicate the feasibility of using OETdMs to autonomously carry out micromanipulation tasks within complex, unstructured environments.
Multi-agent interaction is a fundamental aspect of autonomous driving in the real world. Despite more than a decade of research and development, the problem of how to competently interact with diverse road users in diverse scenarios remains largely unsolved. Learning methods have much to offer towards solving this problem. But they require a realistic multi-agent simulator that generates diverse and competent driving interactions. To meet this need, we develop a dedicated simulation platform called SMARTS (Scalable Multi-Agent RL Training School). SMARTS supports the training, accumulation, and use of diverse behavior models of road users. These are in turn used to create increasingly more realistic and diverse interactions that enable deeper and broader research on multi-agent interaction. In this paper, we describe the design goals of SMARTS, explain its basic architecture and its key features, and illustrate its use through concrete multi-agent experiments on interactive scenarios. We open-source the SMARTS platform and the associated benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to encourage and empower research on multi-agent learning for autonomous driving. Our code is available at https://github.com/huawei-noah/SMARTS.
Self-interference (SI) is considered as a main challenge in full-duplex (FD) systems. Therefore, efficient SI cancelers are required for the influential deployment of FD systems in beyond fifth-generation wireless networks. Existing methods for SI cancellation have mostly considered the polynomial representation of the SI signal at the receiver. These methods are shown to operate well in practice while requiring high computational complexity. Alternatively, neural networks (NNs) are envisioned as promising candidates for modeling the SI signal with reduced computational complexity. Consequently, in this paper, two novel low complexity NN structures, referred to as the ladder-wise grid structure (LWGS) and moving-window grid structure (MWGS), are proposed. The core idea of these two structures is to mimic the non-linearity and memory effect introduced to the SI signal in order to achieve proper SI cancellation while exhibiting low computational complexity. The simulation results reveal that the LWGS and MWGS NN-based cancelers attain the same cancellation performance of the polynomial-based canceler while providing 49.87% and 34.19% complexity reduction, respectively.