Information Bottleneck (IB) is a widely used framework that enables the extraction of information related to a target random variable from a source random variable. In the objective function, IB controls the trade-off between data compression and predictiveness through the Lagrange multiplier $\beta$. Traditionally, to find the trade-off to be learned, IB requires a search for $\beta$ through multiple training cycles, which is computationally expensive. In this study, we introduce Flexible Variational Information Bottleneck (FVIB), an innovative framework for classification task that can obtain optimal models for all values of $\beta$ with single, computationally efficient training. We theoretically demonstrate that across all values of reasonable $\beta$, FVIB can simultaneously maximize an approximation of the objective function for Variational Information Bottleneck (VIB), the conventional IB method. Then we empirically show that FVIB can learn the VIB objective as effectively as VIB. Furthermore, in terms of calibration performance, FVIB outperforms other IB and calibration methods by enabling continuous optimization of $\beta$. Our codes are available at https://github.com/sotakudo/fvib.
Depression is a widespread mental health issue, affecting an estimated 3.8% of the global population. It is also one of the main contributors to disability worldwide. Recently it is becoming popular for individuals to use social media platforms (e.g., Reddit) to express their difficulties and health issues (e.g., depression) and seek support from other users in online communities. It opens great opportunities to automatically identify social media users with depression by parsing millions of posts for potential interventions. Deep learning methods have begun to dominate in the field of machine learning and natural language processing (NLP) because of their ease of use, efficient processing, and state-of-the-art results on many NLP tasks. In this work, we propose a hybrid deep learning model which combines a pretrained sentence BERT (SBERT) and convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect individuals with depression with their Reddit posts. The sentence BERT is used to learn the meaningful representation of semantic information in each post. CNN enables the further transformation of those embeddings and the temporal identification of behavioral patterns of users. We trained and evaluated the model performance to identify Reddit users with depression by utilizing the Self-reported Mental Health Diagnoses (SMHD) data. The hybrid deep learning model achieved an accuracy of 0.86 and an F1 score of 0.86 and outperformed the state-of-the-art documented result (F1 score of 0.79) by other machine learning models in the literature. The results show the feasibility of the hybrid model to identify individuals with depression. Although the hybrid model is validated to detect depression with Reddit posts, it can be easily tuned and applied to other text classification tasks and different clinical applications.
Registration is a basic yet crucial task in point cloud processing. In correspondence-based point cloud registration, matching correspondences by point feature techniques may lead to an extremely high outlier ratio. Current methods still suffer from low efficiency, accuracy, and recall rate. We use a simple and intuitive method to describe the 6-DOF (degree of freedom) curtailment process in point cloud registration and propose an outlier removal strategy based on the reliability of the correspondence graph. The method constructs the corresponding graph according to the given correspondences and designs the concept of the reliability degree of the graph node for optimal candidate selection and the reliability degree of the graph edge to obtain the global maximum consensus set. The presented method could achieve fast and accurate outliers removal along with gradual aligning parameters estimation. Extensive experiments on simulations and challenging real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can still perform effective point cloud registration even the correspondence outlier ratio is over 99%, and the efficiency is better than the state-of-the-art. Code is available at https://github.com/WPC-WHU/GROR.
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Considering the natural frequency characteristics in sleep medicine, this paper first proposes a time-frequency framework for the representation learning of the electroencephalogram (EEG) following the definition of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. To meet the temporal-random and transient nature of the defining characteristics of sleep stages, we further design a context-sensitive flexible pipeline that automatically adapts to the attributes of data itself. That is, the input EEG spectrogram is partitioned into a sequence of patches in the time and frequency axes, and then input to a delicate deep learning network for further representation learning to extract the stage-dependent features, which are used in the classification step finally. The proposed pipeline is validated against a large database, i.e., the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS), and the results demonstrate that the competitive performance for the wake, N2, and N3 stages outperforms the state-of-art works, with the F1 scores being 0.93, 0.88, and 0.87, respectively, and the proposed method has a high inter-rater reliability of 0.80 kappa. Importantly, we visualize the stage scoring process of the model decision with the Layer-wise Relevance Propagation (LRP) method, which shows that the proposed pipeline is more sensitive and perceivable in the decision-making process than the baseline pipelines. Therefore, the pipeline together with the LRP method can provide better model interpretability, which is important for clinical support.
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases worldwide. Accurate diagnosis and classification of cancer subtypes are indispensable for effective clinical treatment. Promising results on automatic cancer subtyping systems have been published recently with the emergence of various deep learning methods. However, such automatic systems often overfit the data due to the high dimensionality and scarcity. In this paper, we propose to investigate automatic subtyping from an unsupervised learning perspective by directly constructing the underlying data distribution itself, hence sufficient data can be generated to alleviate the issue of overfitting. Specifically, we bypass the strong Gaussianity assumption that typically exists but fails in the unsupervised learning subtyping literature due to small-sized samples by vector quantization. Our proposed method better captures the latent space features and models the cancer subtype manifestation on a molecular basis, as demonstrated by the extensive experimental results.