This paper investigates the finite-time adaptive fuzzy tracking control problem for a class of pure-feedback system with full-state constraints. With the help of Mean-Value Theorem, the pure-feedback nonlinear system is transformed into strict-feedback case. By employing finite-time-stable like function and state transformation for output tracking error, the output tracking error converges to a predefined set in a fixed finite interval. To tackle the problem of state constraints, integral Barrier Lyapunov functions are utilized to guarantee that the state variables remain within the prescribed constraints with feasibility check. Fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions. In addition, all the signals in the closed-loop system are guaranteed to be semi-global ultimately uniformly bounded. Finally, two simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Spoken language identification refers to the task of automatically predicting the spoken language in a given utterance. Conventionally, it is modeled as a speech-based language identification task. Prior techniques have been constrained to a single modality; however in the case of video data there is a wealth of other metadata that may be beneficial for this task. In this work, we propose MuSeLI, a Multimodal Spoken Language Identification method, which delves into the use of various metadata sources to enhance language identification. Our study reveals that metadata such as video title, description and geographic location provide substantial information to identify the spoken language of the multimedia recording. We conduct experiments using two diverse public datasets of YouTube videos, and obtain state-of-the-art results on the language identification task. We additionally conduct an ablation study that describes the distinct contribution of each modality for language recognition.
In the recent years, speech representation learning is constructed primarily as a self-supervised learning (SSL) task, using the raw audio signal alone, while ignoring the side-information that is often available for a given speech recording. In this paper, we propose MASR, a Metadata Aware Speech Representation learning framework, which addresses the aforementioned limitations. MASR enables the inclusion of multiple external knowledge sources to enhance the utilization of meta-data information. The external knowledge sources are incorporated in the form of sample-level pair-wise similarity matrices that are useful in a hard-mining loss. A key advantage of the MASR framework is that it can be combined with any choice of SSL method. Using MASR representations, we perform evaluations on several downstream tasks such as language identification, speech recognition and other non-semantic tasks such as speaker and emotion recognition. In these experiments, we illustrate significant performance improvements for the MASR over other established benchmarks. We perform a detailed analysis on the language identification task to provide insights on how the proposed loss function enables the representations to separate closely related languages.
Speech representation learning approaches for non-semantic tasks such as language recognition have either explored supervised embedding extraction methods using a classifier model or self-supervised representation learning approaches using raw data. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of combining self-supervised representation learning with the language label information for the pre-training task. This framework, termed as Label Aware Speech Representation (LASR) learning, uses a triplet based objective function to incorporate language labels along with the self-supervised loss function. The speech representations are further fine-tuned for the downstream task. The language recognition experiments are performed on two public datasets - FLEURS and Dhwani. In these experiments, we illustrate that the proposed LASR framework improves over the state-of-the-art systems on language identification. We also report an analysis of the robustness of LASR approach to noisy/missing labels as well as its application to multi-lingual speech recognition tasks.
Data scarcity is a crucial issue for the development of highly multilingual NLP systems. Yet for many under-represented languages (ULs) -- languages for which NLP re-search is particularly far behind in meeting user needs -- it is feasible to annotate small amounts of data. Motivated by this, we propose XTREME-UP, a benchmark defined by: its focus on the scarce-data scenario rather than zero-shot; its focus on user-centric tasks -- tasks with broad adoption by speakers of high-resource languages; and its focus on under-represented languages where this scarce-data scenario tends to be most realistic. XTREME-UP evaluates the capabilities of language models across 88 under-represented languages over 9 key user-centric technologies including ASR, OCR, MT, and information access tasks that are of general utility. We create new datasets for OCR, autocomplete, semantic parsing, and transliteration, and build on and refine existing datasets for other tasks. XTREME-UP provides methodology for evaluating many modeling scenarios including text-only, multi-modal (vision, audio, and text),supervised parameter tuning, and in-context learning. We evaluate commonly used models on the benchmark. We release all code and scripts to train and evaluate models
We introduce FLEURS, the Few-shot Learning Evaluation of Universal Representations of Speech benchmark. FLEURS is an n-way parallel speech dataset in 102 languages built on top of the machine translation FLoRes-101 benchmark, with approximately 12 hours of speech supervision per language. FLEURS can be used for a variety of speech tasks, including Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Speech Language Identification (Speech LangID), Translation and Retrieval. In this paper, we provide baselines for the tasks based on multilingual pre-trained models like mSLAM. The goal of FLEURS is to enable speech technology in more languages and catalyze research in low-resource speech understanding.
We introduce XTREME-S, a new benchmark to evaluate universal cross-lingual speech representations in many languages. XTREME-S covers four task families: speech recognition, classification, speech-to-text translation and retrieval. Covering 102 languages from 10+ language families, 3 different domains and 4 task families, XTREME-S aims to simplify multilingual speech representation evaluation, as well as catalyze research in "universal" speech representation learning. This paper describes the new benchmark and establishes the first speech-only and speech-text baselines using XLS-R and mSLAM on all downstream tasks. We motivate the design choices and detail how to use the benchmark. Datasets and fine-tuning scripts are made easily accessible at https://hf.co/datasets/google/xtreme_s.
We summarize the results of a host of efforts using giant automatic speech recognition (ASR) models pre-trained using large, diverse unlabeled datasets containing approximately a million hours of audio. We find that the combination of pre-training, self-training and scaling up model size greatly increases data efficiency, even for extremely large tasks with tens of thousands of hours of labeled data. In particular, on an ASR task with 34k hours of labeled data, by fine-tuning an 8 billion parameter pre-trained Conformer model we can match state-of-the-art (SoTA) performance with only 3% of the training data and significantly improve SoTA with the full training set. We also report on the universal benefits gained from using big pre-trained and self-trained models for a large set of downstream tasks that cover a wide range of speech domains and span multiple orders of magnitudes of dataset sizes, including obtaining SoTA performance on many public benchmarks. In addition, we utilize the learned representation of pre-trained networks to achieve SoTA results on non-ASR tasks.
Building ASR models across many language families is a challenging multi-task learning problem due to large language variations and heavily unbalanced data. Existing work has shown positive transfer from high resource to low resource languages. However, degradations on high resource languages are commonly observed due to interference from the heterogeneous multilingual data and reduction in per-language capacity. We conduct a capacity study on a 15-language task, with the amount of data per language varying from 7.7K to 54.7K hours. We adopt GShard  to efficiently scale up to 10B parameters. Empirically, we find that (1) scaling the number of model parameters is an effective way to solve the capacity bottleneck - our 500M-param model is already better than monolingual baselines and scaling it to 1B and 10B brought further quality gains; (2) larger models are not only more data efficient, but also more efficient in terms of training cost as measured in TPU days - the 1B-param model reaches the same accuracy at 34% of training time as the 500M-param model; (3) given a fixed capacity budget, adding depth usually works better than width and large encoders tend to do better than large decoders.
Streaming end-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) models are widely used on smart speakers and on-device applications. Since these models are expected to transcribe speech with minimal latency, they are constrained to be causal with no future context, compared to their non-streaming counterparts. Consequently, streaming models usually perform worse than non-streaming models. We propose a novel and effective learning method by leveraging a non-streaming ASR model as a teacher to generate transcripts on an arbitrarily large data set, which is then used to distill knowledge into streaming ASR models. This way, we scale the training of streaming models to up to 3 million hours of YouTube audio. Experiments show that our approach can significantly reduce the word error rate (WER) of RNNT models not only on LibriSpeech but also on YouTube data in four languages. For example, in French, we are able to reduce the WER by 16.4% relatively to a baseline streaming model by leveraging a non-streaming teacher model trained on the same amount of labeled data as the baseline.