We introduce Ghostbuster, a state-of-the-art system for detecting AI-generated text. Our method works by passing documents through a series of weaker language models and running a structured search over possible combinations of their features, then training a classifier on the selected features to determine if the target document was AI-generated. Crucially, Ghostbuster does not require access to token probabilities from the target model, making it useful for detecting text generated by black-box models or unknown model versions. In conjunction with our model, we release three new datasets of human and AI-generated text as detection benchmarks that cover multiple domains (student essays, creative fiction, and news) and task setups: document-level detection, author identification, and a challenge task of paragraph-level detection. Ghostbuster averages 99.1 F1 across all three datasets on document-level detection, outperforming previous approaches such as GPTZero and DetectGPT by up to 32.7 F1.
The uniform information density (UID) hypothesis states that humans tend to distribute information roughly evenly across an utterance or discourse. Early evidence in support of the UID hypothesis came from Genzel & Charniak (2002), which proposed an entropy rate constancy principle based on the probability of English text under n-gram language models. We re-evaluate the claims of Genzel & Charniak (2002) with neural language models, failing to find clear evidence in support of entropy rate constancy. We conduct a range of experiments across datasets, model sizes, and languages and discuss implications for the uniform information density hypothesis and linguistic theories of efficient communication more broadly.