We present a novel method for precise 3D object localization in single images from a single calibrated camera using only 2D labels. No expensive 3D labels are needed. Thus, instead of using 3D labels, our model is trained with easy-to-annotate 2D labels along with the physical knowledge of the object's motion. Given this information, the model can infer the latent third dimension, even though it has never seen this information during training. Our method is evaluated on both synthetic and real-world datasets, and we are able to achieve a mean distance error of just 6 cm in our experiments on real data. The results indicate the method's potential as a step towards learning 3D object location estimation, where collecting 3D data for training is not feasible.
Current scene graph datasets suffer from strong long-tail distributions of their predicate classes. Due to a very low number of some predicate classes in the test sets, no reliable metrics can be retrieved for the rarest classes. We construct a new panoptic scene graph dataset and a set of metrics that are designed as a benchmark for the predictive performance especially on rare predicate classes. To construct the new dataset, we propose a model-assisted annotation pipeline that efficiently finds rare predicate classes that are hidden in a large set of images like needles in a haystack. Contrary to prior scene graph datasets, Haystack contains explicit negative annotations, i.e. annotations that a given relation does not have a certain predicate class. Negative annotations are helpful especially in the field of scene graph generation and open up a whole new set of possibilities to improve current scene graph generation models. Haystack is 100% compatible with existing panoptic scene graph datasets and can easily be integrated with existing evaluation pipelines. Our dataset and code can be found here: https://lorjul.github.io/haystack/. It includes annotation files and simple to use scripts and utilities, to help with integrating our dataset in existing work.
Challenges drive the state-of-the-art of automated medical image analysis. The quantity of public training data that they provide can limit the performance of their solutions. Public access to the training methodology for these solutions remains absent. This study implements the Type Three (T3) challenge format, which allows for training solutions on private data and guarantees reusable training methodologies. With T3, challenge organizers train a codebase provided by the participants on sequestered training data. T3 was implemented in the STOIC2021 challenge, with the goal of predicting from a computed tomography (CT) scan whether subjects had a severe COVID-19 infection, defined as intubation or death within one month. STOIC2021 consisted of a Qualification phase, where participants developed challenge solutions using 2000 publicly available CT scans, and a Final phase, where participants submitted their training methodologies with which solutions were trained on CT scans of 9724 subjects. The organizers successfully trained six of the eight Final phase submissions. The submitted codebases for training and running inference were released publicly. The winning solution obtained an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for discerning between severe and non-severe COVID-19 of 0.815. The Final phase solutions of all finalists improved upon their Qualification phase solutions.HSUXJM-TNZF9CHSUXJM-TNZF9C
Pseudo depth maps are depth map predicitions which are used as ground truth during training. In this paper we leverage pseudo depth maps in order to segment objects of classes that have never been seen during training. This renders our object segmentation task an open world task. The pseudo depth maps are generated using pretrained networks, which have either been trained with the full intention to generalize to downstream tasks (LeRes and MiDaS), or which have been trained in an unsupervised fashion on video sequences (MonodepthV2). In order to tell our network which object to segment, we provide the network with a single click on the object's surface on the pseudo depth map of the image as input. We test our approach on two different scenarios: One without the RGB image and one where the RGB image is part of the input. Our results demonstrate a considerably better generalization performance from seen to unseen object types when depth is used. On the Semantic Boundaries Dataset we achieve an improvement from $61.57$ to $69.79$ IoU score on unseen classes, when only using half of the training classes during training and performing the segmentation on depth maps only.
Performance analyses based on videos are commonly used by coaches of athletes in various sports disciplines. In individual sports, these analyses mainly comprise the body posture. This paper focuses on the disciplines of triple, high, and long jump, which require fine-grained locations of the athlete's body. Typical human pose estimation datasets provide only a very limited set of keypoints, which is not sufficient in this case. Therefore, we propose a method to detect arbitrary keypoints on the whole body of the athlete by leveraging the limited set of annotated keypoints and auto-generated segmentation masks of body parts. Evaluations show that our model is capable of detecting keypoints on the head, torso, hands, feet, arms, and legs, including also bent elbows and knees. We analyze and compare different techniques to encode desired keypoints as the model's input and their embedding for the Transformer backbone.
Analyses based on the body posture are crucial for top-class athletes in many sports disciplines. If at all, coaches label only the most important keypoints, since manual annotations are very costly. This paper proposes a method to detect arbitrary keypoints on the limbs and skis of professional ski jumpers that requires a few, only partly correct segmentation masks during training. Our model is based on the Vision Transformer architecture with a special design for the input tokens to query for the desired keypoints. Since we use segmentation masks only to generate ground truth labels for the freely selectable keypoints, partly correct segmentation masks are sufficient for our training procedure. Hence, there is no need for costly hand-annotated segmentation masks. We analyze different training techniques for freely selected and standard keypoints, including pseudo labels, and show in our experiments that only a few partly correct segmentation masks are sufficient for learning to detect arbitrary keypoints on limbs and skis.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) can reduce the need for large labelled datasets by incorporating unlabelled data into the training. This is particularly interesting for semantic segmentation, where labelling data is very costly and time-consuming. Current SSL approaches use an initially supervised trained model to generate predictions for unlabelled images, called pseudo-labels, which are subsequently used for training a new model from scratch. Since the predictions usually do not come from an error-free neural network, they are naturally full of errors. However, training with partially incorrect labels often reduce the final model performance. Thus, it is crucial to manage errors/noise of pseudo-labels wisely. In this work, we use three mechanisms to control pseudo-label noise and errors: (1) We construct a solid base framework by mixing images with cow-patterns on unlabelled images to reduce the negative impact of wrong pseudo-labels. Nevertheless, wrong pseudo-labels still have a negative impact on the performance. Therefore, (2) we propose a simple and effective loss weighting scheme for pseudo-labels defined by the feedback of the model trained on these pseudo-labels. This allows us to soft-weight the pseudo-label training examples based on their determined confidence score during training. (3) We also study the common practice to ignore pseudo-labels with low confidence and empirically analyse the influence and effect of pseudo-labels with different confidence ranges on SSL and the contribution of pseudo-label filtering to the achievable performance gains. We show that our method performs superior to state of-the-art alternatives on various datasets. Furthermore, we show that our findings also transfer to other tasks such as human pose estimation. Our code is available at https://github.com/ChristmasFan/SSL_Denoising_Segmentation.
The state-of-the-art for monocular 3D human pose estimation in videos is dominated by the paradigm of 2D-to-3D pose uplifting. While the uplifting methods themselves are rather efficient, the true computational complexity depends on the per-frame 2D pose estimation. In this paper, we present a Transformer-based pose uplifting scheme that can operate on temporally sparse 2D pose sequences but still produce temporally dense 3D pose estimates. We show how masked token modeling can be utilized for temporal upsampling within Transformer blocks. This allows to decouple the sampling rate of input 2D poses and the target frame rate of the video and drastically decreases the total computational complexity. Additionally, we explore the option of pre-training on large motion capture archives, which has been largely neglected so far. We evaluate our method on two popular benchmark datasets: Human3.6M and MPI-INF-3DHP. With an MPJPE of 45.0 mm and 46.9 mm, respectively, our proposed method can compete with the state-of-the-art while reducing inference time by a factor of 12. This enables real-time throughput with variable consumer hardware in stationary and mobile applications. We release our code and models at https://github.com/goldbricklemon/uplift-upsample-3dhpe