Traditionally, training neural networks to perform semantic segmentation required expensive human-made annotations. But more recently, advances in the field of unsupervised learning have made significant progress on this issue and towards closing the gap to supervised algorithms. To achieve this, semantic knowledge is distilled by learning to correlate randomly sampled features from images across an entire dataset. In this work, we build upon these advances by incorporating information about the structure of the scene into the training process through the use of depth information. We achieve this by (1) learning depth-feature correlation by spatially correlate the feature maps with the depth maps to induce knowledge about the structure of the scene and (2) implementing farthest-point sampling to more effectively select relevant features by utilizing 3D sampling techniques on depth information of the scene. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our technical contributions through extensive experimentation and present significant improvements in performance across multiple benchmark datasets.
In volume rendering, transfer functions are used to classify structures of interest, and to assign optical properties such as color and opacity. They are commonly defined as 1D or 2D functions that map simple features to these optical properties. As the process of designing a transfer function is typically tedious and unintuitive, several approaches have been proposed for their interactive specification. In this paper, we present a novel method to define transfer functions for volume rendering by leveraging the feature extraction capabilities of self-supervised pre-trained vision transformers. To design a transfer function, users simply select the structures of interest in a slice viewer, and our method automatically selects similar structures based on the high-level features extracted by the neural network. Contrary to previous learning-based transfer function approaches, our method does not require training of models and allows for quick inference, enabling an interactive exploration of the volume data. Our approach reduces the amount of necessary annotations by interactively informing the user about the current classification, so they can focus on annotating the structures of interest that still require annotation. In practice, this allows users to design transfer functions within seconds, instead of minutes. We compare our method to existing learning-based approaches in terms of annotation and compute time, as well as with respect to segmentation accuracy. Our accompanying video showcases the interactivity and effectiveness of our method.
Deep learning in medical imaging has the potential to minimize the risk of diagnostic errors, reduce radiologist workload, and accelerate diagnosis. Training such deep learning models requires large and accurate datasets, with annotations for all training samples. However, in the medical imaging domain, annotated datasets for specific tasks are often small due to the high complexity of annotations, limited access, or the rarity of diseases. To address this challenge, deep learning models can be pre-trained on large image datasets without annotations using methods from the field of self-supervised learning. After pre-training, small annotated datasets are sufficient to fine-tune the models for a specific task. The most popular self-supervised pre-training approaches in medical imaging are based on contrastive learning. However, recent studies in natural image processing indicate a strong potential for masked autoencoder approaches. Our work compares state-of-the-art contrastive learning methods with the recently introduced masked autoencoder approach "SparK" for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on medical images. Therefore we pre-train on a large unannotated CT image dataset and fine-tune on several CT classification tasks. Due to the challenge of obtaining sufficient annotated training data in medical imaging, it is of particular interest to evaluate how the self-supervised pre-training methods perform when fine-tuning on small datasets. By experimenting with gradually reducing the training dataset size for fine-tuning, we find that the reduction has different effects depending on the type of pre-training chosen. The SparK pre-training method is more robust to the training dataset size than the contrastive methods. Based on our results, we propose the SparK pre-training for medical imaging tasks with only small annotated datasets.
Deep learning in medical imaging has the potential to minimize the risk of diagnostic errors, reduce radiologist workload, and accelerate diagnosis. Training such deep learning models requires large and accurate datasets, with annotations for all training samples. However, in the medical imaging domain, annotated datasets for specific tasks are often small due to the high complexity of annotations, limited access, or the rarity of diseases. To address this challenge, deep learning models can be pre-trained on large image datasets without annotations using methods from the field of self-supervised learning. After pre-training, small annotated datasets are sufficient to fine-tune the models for a specific task, the so-called ``downstream task". The most popular self-supervised pre-training approaches in medical imaging are based on contrastive learning. However, recent studies in natural image processing indicate a strong potential for masked autoencoder approaches. Our work compares state-of-the-art contrastive learning methods with the recently introduced masked autoencoder approach "SparK" for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on medical images. Therefore we pre-train on a large unannotated CT image dataset and fine-tune on several downstream CT classification tasks. Due to the challenge of obtaining sufficient annotated training data in the medical imaging domain, it is of particular interest to evaluate how the self-supervised pre-training methods perform on small downstream datasets. By experimenting with gradually reducing the training dataset size of our downstream tasks, we find that the reduction has different effects depending on the type of pre-training chosen. The SparK pre-training method is more robust to the training dataset size than the contrastive methods. Based on our results, we propose the SparK pre-training for medical downstream tasks with small datasets.
Cluster separation in scatterplots is a task that is typically tackled by widely used clustering techniques, such as for instance k-means or DBSCAN. However, as these algorithms are based on non-perceptual metrics, their output often does not reflect human cluster perception. To bridge the gap between human cluster perception and machine-computed clusters, we propose a learning strategy which directly operates on scattered data. To learn perceptual cluster separation on this data, we crowdsourced a large scale dataset, consisting of 7,320 point-wise cluster affiliations for bivariate data, which has been labeled by 384 human crowd workers. Based on this data, we were able to train ClusterNet, a point-based deep learning model, trained to reflect human perception of cluster separability. In order to train ClusterNet on human annotated data, we omit rendering scatterplots on a 2D canvas, but rather use a PointNet++ architecture enabling inference on point clouds directly. In this work, we provide details on how we collected our dataset, report statistics of the resulting annotations, and investigate perceptual agreement of cluster separation for real-world data. We further report the training and evaluation protocol of ClusterNet and introduce a novel metric, that measures the accuracy between a clustering technique and a group of human annotators. Finally, we compare our approach against existing state-of-the-art clustering techniques.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have revolutionized natural language processing and demonstrated impressive capabilities in various tasks. Unfortunately, they are prone to hallucinations, where the model exposes incorrect or false information in its responses, which renders diligent evaluation approaches mandatory. While LLM performance in specific knowledge fields is often evaluated based on question and answer (Q&A) datasets, such evaluations usually report only a single accuracy number for the entire field, a procedure which is problematic with respect to transparency and model improvement. A stratified evaluation could instead reveal subfields, where hallucinations are more likely to occur and thus help to better assess LLMs' risks and guide their further development. To support such stratified evaluations, we propose LLMMaps as a novel visualization technique that enables users to evaluate LLMs' performance with respect to Q&A datasets. LLMMaps provide detailed insights into LLMs' knowledge capabilities in different subfields, by transforming Q&A datasets as well as LLM responses into our internal knowledge structure. An extension for comparative visualization furthermore, allows for the detailed comparison of multiple LLMs. To assess LLMMaps we use them to conduct a comparative analysis of several state-of-the-art LLMs, such as BLOOM, GPT-2, GPT-3, ChatGPT and LLaMa-13B, as well as two qualitative user evaluations. All necessary source code and data for generating LLMMaps to be used in scientific publications and elsewhere will be available on GitHub.
Indirect Time-of-Flight (iToF) cameras are a widespread type of 3D sensor, which perform multiple captures to obtain depth values of the captured scene. While recent approaches to correct iToF depths achieve high performance when removing multi-path-interference and sensor noise, little research has been done to tackle motion artifacts. In this work we propose a training algorithm, which allows to supervise Optical Flow (OF) networks directly on the reconstructed depth, without the need of having ground truth flows. We demonstrate that this approach enables the training of OF networks to align raw iToF measurements and compensate motion artifacts in the iToF depth images. The approach is evaluated for both single- and multi-frequency sensors as well as multi-tap sensors, and is able to outperform other motion compensation techniques.
Neural networks have shown great success in extracting geometric information from color images. Especially, monocular depth estimation networks are increasingly reliable in real-world scenes. In this work we investigate the applicability of such monocular depth estimation networks to semi-transparent volume rendered images. As depth is notoriously difficult to define in a volumetric scene without clearly defined surfaces, we consider different depth computations that have emerged in practice, and compare state-of-the-art monocular depth estimation approaches for these different interpretations during an evaluation considering different degrees of opacity in the renderings. Additionally, we investigate how these networks can be extended to further obtain color and opacity information, in order to create a layered representation of the scene based on a single color image. This layered representation consists of spatially separated semi-transparent intervals that composite to the original input rendering. In our experiments we show that adaptions of existing approaches to monocular depth estimation perform well on semi-transparent volume renderings, which has several applications in the area of scientific visualization.
A key to deciphering the inner workings of neural networks is understanding what a model has learned. Promising methods for discovering learned features are based on analyzing activation values, whereby current techniques focus on analyzing high activation values to reveal interesting features on a neuron level. However, analyzing high activation values limits layer-level concept discovery. We present a method that instead takes into account the entire activation distribution. By extracting similar activation profiles within the high-dimensional activation space of a neural network layer, we find groups of inputs that are treated similarly. These input groups represent neural activation patterns (NAPs) and can be used to visualize and interpret learned layer concepts. We release a framework with which NAPs can be extracted from pre-trained models and provide a visual introspection tool that can be used to analyze NAPs. We tested our method with a variety of networks and show how it complements existing methods for analyzing neural network activation values.
Learning from 3D protein structures has gained wide interest in protein modeling and structural bioinformatics. Unfortunately, the number of available structures is orders of magnitude lower than the training data sizes commonly used in computer vision and machine learning. Moreover, this number is reduced even further, when only annotated protein structures can be considered, making the training of existing models difficult and prone to over-fitting. To address this challenge, we introduce a new representation learning framework for 3D protein structures. Our framework uses unsupervised contrastive learning to learn meaningful representations of protein structures, making use of proteins from the Protein Data Bank. We show, how these representations can be used to solve a large variety of tasks, such as protein function prediction, protein fold classification, structural similarity prediction, and protein-ligand binding affinity prediction. Moreover, we show how fine-tuned networks, pre-trained with our algorithm, lead to significantly improved task performance, achieving new state-of-the-art results in many tasks.