Dynamic positron emission tomography imaging (dPET) provides temporally resolved images of a tracer enabling a quantitative measure of physiological processes. Voxel-wise physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of the time activity curves (TAC) can provide relevant diagnostic information for clinical workflow. Conventional fitting strategies for TACs are slow and ignore the spatial relation between neighboring voxels. We train a spatio-temporal UNet to estimate the kinetic parameters given TAC from F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dPET. This work introduces a self-supervised loss formulation to enforce the similarity between the measured TAC and those generated with the learned kinetic parameters. Our method provides quantitatively comparable results at organ-level to the significantly slower conventional approaches, while generating pixel-wise parametric images which are consistent with expected physiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first self-supervised network that allows voxel-wise computation of kinetic parameters consistent with a non-linear kinetic model. The code will become publicly available upon acceptance.
Ultrasound is an adjunct tool to mammography that can quickly and safely aid physicians with diagnosing breast abnormalities. Clinical ultrasound often assumes a constant sound speed to form B-mode images for diagnosis. However, the various types of breast tissue, such as glandular, fat, and lesions, differ in sound speed. These differences can degrade the image reconstruction process. Alternatively, sound speed can be a powerful tool for identifying disease. To this end, we propose a deep-learning approach for sound speed estimation from in-phase and quadrature ultrasound signals. First, we develop a large-scale simulated ultrasound dataset that generates quasi-realistic breast tissue by modeling breast gland, skin, and lesions with varying echogenicity and sound speed. We developed a fully convolutional neural network architecture trained on a simulated dataset to produce an estimated sound speed map from inputting three complex-value in-phase and quadrature ultrasound images formed from plane-wave transmissions at separate angles. Furthermore, thermal noise augmentation is used during model optimization to enhance generalizability to real ultrasound data. We evaluate the model on simulated, phantom, and in-vivo breast ultrasound data, demonstrating its ability to accurately estimate sound speeds consistent with previously reported values in the literature. Our simulated dataset and model will be publicly available to provide a step towards accurate and generalizable sound speed estimation for pulse-echo ultrasound imaging.
A fundamental approach in neuroscience research is to test hypotheses based on neuropsychological and behavioral measures, i.e., whether certain factors (e.g., related to life events) are associated with an outcome (e.g., depression). In recent years, deep learning has become a potential alternative approach for conducting such analyses by predicting an outcome from a collection of factors and identifying the most "informative" ones driving the prediction. However, this approach has had limited impact as its findings are not linked to statistical significance of factors supporting hypotheses. In this article, we proposed a flexible and scalable approach based on the concept of permutation testing that integrates hypothesis testing into the data-driven deep learning analysis. We apply our approach to the yearly self-reported assessments of 621 adolescent participants of the National Consortium of Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) to predict negative valence, a symptom of major depressive disorder according to the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Our method successfully identifies categories of risk factors that further explain the symptom.
Quantifying COVID-19 infection over time is an important task to manage the hospitalization of patients during a global pandemic. Recently, deep learning-based approaches have been proposed to help radiologists automatically quantify COVID-19 pathologies on longitudinal CT scans. However, the learning process of deep learning methods demands extensive training data to learn the complex characteristics of infected regions over longitudinal scans. It is challenging to collect a large-scale dataset, especially for longitudinal training. In this study, we want to address this problem by proposing a new self-supervised learning method to effectively train longitudinal networks for the quantification of COVID-19 infections. For this purpose, longitudinal self-supervision schemes are explored on clinical longitudinal COVID-19 CT scans. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective, helping the model better exploit the semantics of longitudinal data and improve two COVID-19 quantification tasks.
Algorithmic surgical workflow recognition is an ongoing research field and can be divided into laparoscopic (Internal) and operating room (External) analysis. So far many different works for the internal analysis have been proposed with the combination of a frame-level and an additional temporal model to address the temporal ambiguities between different workflow phases. For the External recognition task, Clip-level methods are in the focus of researchers targeting the local ambiguities present in the OR scene. In this work we evaluate combinations of different model architectures for the task of surgical workflow recognition to provide a fair comparison of the methods for both Internal and External analysis. We show that methods designed for the Internal analysis can be transferred to the external task with comparable performance gains for different architectures.
Consistent segmentation of COVID-19 patient's CT scans across multiple time points is essential to assess disease progression and response to therapy accurately. Existing automatic and interactive segmentation models for medical images only use data from a single time point (static). However, valuable segmentation information from previous time points is often not used to aid the segmentation of a patient's follow-up scans. Also, fully automatic segmentation techniques frequently produce results that would need further editing for clinical use. In this work, we propose a new single network model for interactive segmentation that fully utilizes all available past information to refine the segmentation of follow-up scans. In the first segmentation round, our model takes 3D volumes of medical images from two-time points (target and reference) as concatenated slices with the additional reference time point segmentation as a guide to segment the target scan. In subsequent segmentation refinement rounds, user feedback in the form of scribbles that correct the segmentation and the target's previous segmentation results are additionally fed into the model. This ensures that the segmentation information from previous refinement rounds is retained. Experimental results on our in-house multiclass longitudinal COVID-19 dataset show that the proposed model outperforms its static version and can assist in localizing COVID-19 infections in patient's follow-up scans.
During the first wave of COVID-19, hospitals were overwhelmed with the high number of admitted patients. An accurate prediction of the most likely individual disease progression can improve the planning of limited resources and finding the optimal treatment for patients. However, when dealing with a newly emerging disease such as COVID-19, the impact of patient- and disease-specific factors (e.g. body weight or known co-morbidities) on the immediate course of disease is by and large unknown. In the case of COVID-19, the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission of pneumonia patients is often determined only by acute indicators such as vital signs (e.g. breathing rate, blood oxygen levels), whereas statistical analysis and decision support systems that integrate all of the available data could enable an earlier prognosis. To this end, we propose a holistic graph-based approach combining both imaging and non-imaging information. Specifically, we introduce a multimodal similarity metric to build a population graph for clustering patients and an image-based end-to-end Graph Attention Network to process this graph and predict the COVID-19 patient outcomes: admission to ICU, need for ventilation and mortality. Additionally, the network segments chest CT images as an auxiliary task and extracts image features and radiomics for feature fusion with the available metadata. Results on a dataset collected in Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich, Germany show that our approach outperforms single modality and non-graph baselines. Moreover, our clustering and graph attention allow for increased understanding of the patient relationships within the population graph and provide insight into the network's decision-making process.
Image classification models deployed in the real world may receive inputs outside the intended data distribution. For critical applications such as clinical decision making, it is important that a model can detect such out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs and express its uncertainty. In this work, we assess the capability of various state-of-the-art approaches for confidence-based OOD detection through a comparative study and in-depth analysis. First, we leverage a computer vision benchmark to reproduce and compare multiple OOD detection methods. We then evaluate their capabilities on the challenging task of disease classification using chest X-rays. Our study shows that high performance in a computer vision task does not directly translate to accuracy in a medical imaging task. We analyse factors that affect performance of the methods between the two tasks. Our results provide useful insights for developing the next generation of OOD detection methods.
Medical Ultrasound (US), despite its wide use, is characterized by artifacts and operator dependency. Those attributes hinder the gathering and utilization of US datasets for the training of Deep Neural Networks used for Computer-Assisted Intervention Systems. Data augmentation is commonly used to enhance model generalization and performance. However, common data augmentation techniques, such as affine transformations do not align with the physics of US and, when used carelessly can lead to unrealistic US images. To this end, we propose a set of physics-inspired transformations, including deformation, reverb and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, that we apply on US B-mode images for data augmentation. We evaluate our method on a new spine US dataset for the tasks of bone segmentation and classification.
Chest computed tomography (CT) has played an essential diagnostic role in assessing patients with COVID-19 by showing disease-specific image features such as ground-glass opacity and consolidation. Image segmentation methods have proven to help quantify the disease burden and even help predict the outcome. The availability of longitudinal CT series may also result in an efficient and effective method to reliably assess the progression of COVID-19, monitor the healing process and the response to different therapeutic strategies. In this paper, we propose a new framework to identify infection at a voxel level (identification of healthy lung, consolidation, and ground-glass opacity) and visualize the progression of COVID-19 using sequential low-dose non-contrast CT scans. In particular, we devise a longitudinal segmentation network that utilizes the reference scan information to improve the performance of disease identification. Experimental results on a clinical longitudinal dataset collected in our institution show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to the static deep neural networks for disease quantification.