Network slicing-based communication systems can dynamically and efficiently allocate resources for diversified services. However, due to the limitation of the network interface on channel access and the complexity of the resource allocation, it is challenging to achieve an acceptable solution in the practical system without precise prior knowledge of the dynamics probability model of the service requests. Existing work attempts to solve this problem using deep reinforcement learning (DRL), however, such methods usually require a lot of interaction with the real environment in order to achieve good results. In this paper, a framework consisting of a digital twin and reinforcement learning agents is present to handle the issue. Specifically, we propose to use the historical data and the neural networks to build a digital twin model to simulate the state variation law of the real environment. Then, we use the data generated by the network slicing environment to calibrate the digital twin so that it is in sync with the real environment. Finally, DRL for slice optimization optimizes its own performance in this virtual pre-verification environment. We conducted an exhaustive verification of the proposed digital twin framework to confirm its scalability. Specifically, we propose to use loss landscapes to visualize the generalization of DRL solutions. We explore a distillation-based optimization scheme for lightweight slicing strategies. In addition, we also extend the framework to offline reinforcement learning, where solutions can be used to obtain intelligent decisions based solely on historical data. Numerical simulation experiments show that the proposed digital twin can significantly improve the performance of the slice optimization strategy.
Dynamic Metasurface Antenna (DMA) is a cutting-edge antenna technology offering scalable and sustainable solutions for large antenna arrays. The effectiveness of DMAs stems from their inherent configurable analog signal processing capabilities, which facilitate cost-limited implementations. However, when DMAs are used in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication systems, they pose challenges in channel estimation due to their analog compression. In this paper, we propose two model-based learning methods to overcome this challenge. Our approach starts by casting channel estimation as a compressed sensing problem. Here, the sensing matrix is formed using a random DMA weighting matrix combined with a spatial gridding dictionary. We then employ the learned iterative shrinkage and thresholding algorithm (LISTA) to recover the sparse channel parameters. LISTA unfolds the iterative shrinkage and thresholding algorithm into a neural network and trains the neural network into a highly efficient channel estimator fitting with the previous channel. As the sensing matrix is crucial to the accuracy of LISTA recovery, we introduce another data-aided method, LISTA-sensing matrix optimization (LISTA-SMO), to jointly optimize the sensing matrix. LISTA-SMO takes LISTA as a backbone and embeds the sensing matrix optimization layers in LISTA's neural network, allowing for the optimization of the sensing matrix along with the training of LISTA. Furthermore, we propose a self-supervised learning technique to tackle the difficulty of acquiring noise-free data. Our numerical results demonstrate that LISTA outperforms traditional sparse recovery methods regarding channel estimation accuracy and efficiency. Besides, LISTA-SMO achieves better channel accuracy than LISTA, demonstrating the effectiveness in optimizing the sensing matrix.
Extremely large-scale massive MIMO (XL-MIMO) has been reviewed as a promising technology for future wireless communications. The deployment of XL-MIMO, especially at high-frequency bands, leads to users being located in the near-field region instead of the conventional far-field. This letter proposes efficient model-based deep learning algorithms for estimating the near-field wireless channel of XL-MIMO communications. In particular, we first formulate the XL-MIMO near-field channel estimation task as a compressed sensing problem using the spatial gridding-based sparsifying dictionary, and then solve the resulting problem by applying the Learning Iterative Shrinkage and Thresholding Algorithm (LISTA). Due to the near-field characteristic, the spatial gridding-based sparsifying dictionary may result in low channel estimation accuracy and a heavy computational burden. To address this issue, we further propose a new sparsifying dictionary learning-LISTA (SDL-LISTA) algorithm that formulates the sparsifying dictionary as a neural network layer and embeds it into LISTA neural network. The numerical results show that our proposed algorithms outperform non-learning benchmark schemes, and SDL-LISTA achieves better performance than LISTA with ten times atoms reduction.
Nowadays wireless communication is rapidly reshaping entire industry sectors. In particular, mobile edge computing (MEC) as an enabling technology for industrial Internet of things (IIoT) brings powerful computing/storage infrastructure closer to the mobile terminals and, thereby, significant lowers the response latency. To reap the benefit of proactive caching at the network edge, precise knowledge on the popularity pattern among the end devices is essential. However, the complex and dynamic nature of the content popularity over space and time as well as the data-privacy requirements in many IIoT scenarios pose tough challenges to its acquisition. In this article, we propose an unsupervised and privacy-preserving popularity prediction framework for MEC-enabled IIoT. The concepts of local and global popularities are introduced and the time-varying popularity of each user is modelled as a model-free Markov chain. On this basis, a novel unsupervised recurrent federated learning (URFL) algorithm is proposed to predict the distributed popularity while achieve privacy preservation and unsupervised training. Simulations indicate that the proposed framework can enhance the prediction accuracy in terms of a reduced root-mean-squared error by up to $60.5\%-68.7\%$. Additionally, manual labeling and violation of users' data privacy are both avoided.
* 17 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in IEEE INTERNET OF
This paper investigates a novel intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-based symbiotic radio (SR) system architecture consisting of a transmitter, an IRS, and an information receiver (IR). The primary transmitter communicates with the IR and at the same time assists the IRS in forwarding information to the IR. Based on the IRS's symbol period, we distinguish two scenarios, namely, commensal SR (CSR) and parasitic SR (PSR), where two different techniques for decoding the IRS signals at the IR are employed. We formulate bit error rate (BER) minimization problems for both scenarios by jointly optimizing the active beamformer at the base station and the phase shifts at the IRS, subject to a minimum primary rate requirement. Specifically, for the CSR scenario, a penalty-based algorithm is proposed to obtain a high-quality solution, where semi-closed-form solutions for the active beamformer and the IRS phase shifts are derived based on Lagrange duality and Majorization-Minimization methods, respectively. For the PSR scenario, we apply a bisection search-based method, successive convex approximation, and difference of convex programming to develop a computationally efficient algorithm, which converges to a locally optimal solution. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and show that the proposed SR techniques are able to achieve a lower BER than benchmark schemes.
* This manuscript has been submitted to IEEE journal for possible
Virtual reality (VR) is promising to fundamentally transform a broad spectrum of industry sectors and the way humans interact with virtual content. However, despite unprecedented progress, current networking and computing infrastructures are incompetent to unlock VR's full potential. In this paper, we consider delivering the wireless multi-tile VR video service over a mobile edge computing (MEC) network. The primary goal is to minimize the system latency/energy consumption and to arrive at a tradeoff thereof. To this end, we first cast the time-varying view popularity as a model-free Markov chain to effectively capture its dynamic characteristics. After jointly assessing the caching and computing capacities on both the MEC server and the VR playback device, a hybrid policy is then implemented to coordinate the dynamic caching replacement and the deterministic offloading, so as to fully utilize the system resources. The underlying multi-objective problem is reformulated as a partially observable Markov decision process, and a deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm is proposed to iteratively learn its solution, where a long short-term memory neural network is embedded to continuously predict the dynamics of the unobservable popularity. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme in achieving a trade-off between the energy efficiency and the latency reduction over the baseline methods.
Heterogeneous Ultra-Dense Network (HUDN) is one of the vital networking architectures due to its ability to enable higher connectivity density and ultra-high data rates. Rational user association and power control schedule in HUDN can reduce wireless interference. This paper proposes a novel idea for resolving the joint user association and power control problem: the optimal user association and Base Station transmit power can be represented by channel information. Then, we solve this problem by formulating an optimal representation function. We model the HUDNs as a heterogeneous graph and train a Graph Neural Network (GNN) to approach this representation function by using semi-supervised learning, in which the loss function is composed of the unsupervised part that helps the GNN approach the optimal representation function and the supervised part that utilizes the previous experience to reduce useless exploration. We separate the learning process into two parts, the generalization-representation learning (GRL) part and the specialization-representation learning (SRL) part, which train the GNN for learning representation for generalized scenario quasi-static user distribution scenario, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed GRL-based solution has higher computational efficiency than the traditional optimization algorithm, and the performance of SRL outperforms the GRL.
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are powerful models that have achieved excellent performance on difficult computer vision tasks. Although CNNS perform well whenever large labeled training samples are available, they work badly on video frame synthesis due to objects deforming and moving, scene lighting changes, and cameras moving in video sequence. In this paper, we present a novel and general end-to-end architecture, called convolutional Transformer or ConvTransformer, for video frame sequence learning and video frame synthesis. The core ingredient of ConvTransformer is the proposed attention layer, i.e., multi-head convolutional self-attention, that learns the sequential dependence of video sequence. Our method ConvTransformer uses an encoder, built upon multi-head convolutional self-attention layers, to map the input sequence to a feature map sequence, and then another deep networks, incorporating multi-head convolutional self-attention layers, decode the target synthesized frames from the feature maps sequence. Experiments on video future frame extrapolation task show ConvTransformer to be superior in quality while being more parallelizable to recent approaches built upon convoltuional LSTM (ConvLSTM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that ConvTransformer architecture is proposed and applied to video frame synthesis.