Volumetric design, also called massing design, is the first and critical step in professional building design which is sequential in nature. As the volumetric design process is complex, the underlying sequential design process encodes valuable information for designers. Many efforts have been made to automatically generate reasonable volumetric designs, but the quality of the generated design solutions varies, and evaluating a design solution requires either a prohibitively comprehensive set of metrics or expensive human expertise. While previous approaches focused on learning only the final design instead of sequential design tasks, we propose to encode the design knowledge from a collection of expert or high-performing design sequences and extract useful representations using transformer-based models. Later we propose to utilize the learned representations for crucial downstream applications such as design preference evaluation and procedural design generation. We develop the preference model by estimating the density of the learned representations whereas we train an autoregressive transformer model for sequential design generation. We demonstrate our ideas by leveraging a novel dataset of thousands of sequential volumetric designs. Our preference model can compare two arbitrarily given design sequences and is almost 90% accurate in evaluation against random design sequences. Our autoregressive model is also capable of autocompleting a volumetric design sequence from a partial design sequence.
6-DoF pose estimation is an essential component of robotic manipulation pipelines. However, it usually suffers from a lack of generalization to new instances and object types. Most widely used methods learn to infer the object pose in a discriminative setup where the model filters useful information to infer the exact pose of the object. While such methods offer accurate poses, the model does not store enough information to generalize to new objects. In this work, we address the generalization capability of pose estimation using models that contain enough information about the object to render it in different poses. We follow the line of work that inverts neural renderers to infer the pose. We propose i-$\sigma$SRN to maximize the information flowing from the input pose to the rendered scene and invert them to infer the pose given an input image. Specifically, we extend Scene Representation Networks (SRNs) by incorporating a separate network for density estimation and introduce a new way of obtaining a weighted scene representation. We investigate several ways of initial pose estimates and losses for the neural renderer. Our final evaluation shows a significant improvement in inference performance and speed compared to existing approaches.
A fundamental challenge of over-parameterized deep learning models is learning meaningful data representations that yield good performance on a downstream task without over-fitting spurious input features. This work proposes MaskTune, a masking strategy that prevents over-reliance on spurious (or a limited number of) features. MaskTune forces the trained model to explore new features during a single epoch finetuning by masking previously discovered features. MaskTune, unlike earlier approaches for mitigating shortcut learning, does not require any supervision, such as annotating spurious features or labels for subgroup samples in a dataset. Our empirical results on biased MNIST, CelebA, Waterbirds, and ImagenNet-9L datasets show that MaskTune is effective on tasks that often suffer from the existence of spurious correlations. Finally, we show that MaskTune outperforms or achieves similar performance to the competing methods when applied to the selective classification (classification with rejection option) task. Code for MaskTune is available at https://github.com/aliasgharkhani/Masktune.
User modeling is crucial to understanding user behavior and essential for improving user experience and personalized recommendations. When users interact with software, vast amounts of command sequences are generated through logging and analytics systems. These command sequences contain clues to the users' goals and intents. However, these data modalities are highly unstructured and unlabeled, making it difficult for standard predictive systems to learn from. We propose SimCURL, a simple yet effective contrastive self-supervised deep learning framework that learns user representation from unlabeled command sequences. Our method introduces a user-session network architecture, as well as session dropout as a novel way of data augmentation. We train and evaluate our method on a real-world command sequence dataset of more than half a billion commands. Our method shows significant improvement over existing methods when the learned representation is transferred to downstream tasks such as experience and expertise classification.
Batch normalization (BN) is a ubiquitous technique for training deep neural networks that accelerates their convergence to reach higher accuracy. However, we demonstrate that BN comes with a fundamental drawback: it incentivizes the model to rely on low-variance features that are highly specific to the training (in-domain) data, hurting generalization performance on out-of-domain examples. In this work, we investigate this phenomenon by first showing that removing BN layers across a wide range of architectures leads to lower out-of-domain and corruption errors at the cost of higher in-domain errors. We then propose Counterbalancing Teacher (CT), a method which leverages a frozen copy of the same model without BN as a teacher to enforce the student network's learning of robust representations by substantially adapting its weights through a consistency loss function. This regularization signal helps CT perform well in unforeseen data shifts, even without information from the target domain as in prior works. We theoretically show in an overparameterized linear regression setting why normalization leads to a model's reliance on such in-domain features, and empirically demonstrate the efficacy of CT by outperforming several baselines on robustness benchmarks such as CIFAR-10-C, CIFAR-100-C, and VLCS.
Constrained optimization problems can be difficult because their search spaces have properties not conducive to search, e.g., multimodality, discontinuities, or deception. To address such difficulties, considerable research has been performed on creating novel evolutionary algorithms or specialized genetic operators. However, if the representation that defined the search space could be altered such that it only permitted valid solutions that satisfied the constraints, the task of finding the optimal would be made more feasible without any need for specialized optimization algorithms. We propose the use of a Variational Autoencoder to learn such representations. We present Constrained Optimization in Latent Space (COIL), which uses a VAE to generate a learned latent representation from a dataset comprising samples from the valid region of the search space according to a constraint, thus enabling the optimizer to find the objective in the new space defined by the learned representation. We investigate the value of this approach on different constraint types and for different numbers of variables. We show that, compared to an identical GA using a standard representation, COIL with its learned latent representation can satisfy constraints and find solutions with distance to objective up to two orders of magnitude closer.
Physical products are often complex assemblies combining a multitude of 3D parts modeled in computer-aided design (CAD) software. CAD designers build up these assemblies by aligning individual parts to one another using constraints called joints. In this paper we introduce JoinABLe, a learning-based method that assembles parts together to form joints. JoinABLe uses the weak supervision available in standard parametric CAD files without the help of object class labels or human guidance. Our results show that by making network predictions over a graph representation of solid models we can outperform multiple baseline methods with an accuracy (79.53%) that approaches human performance (80%). Finally, to support future research we release the Fusion 360 Gallery assembly dataset, containing assemblies with rich information on joints, contact surfaces, holes, and the underlying assembly graph structure.
Learning interpretable and human-controllable representations that uncover factors of variation in data remains an ongoing key challenge in representation learning. We investigate learning group-disentangled representations for groups of factors with weak supervision. Existing techniques to address this challenge merely constrain the approximate posterior by averaging over observations of a shared group. As a result, observations with a common set of variations are encoded to distinct latent representations, reducing their capacity to disentangle and generalize to downstream tasks. In contrast to previous works, we propose GroupVAE, a simple yet effective Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence-based regularization across shared latent representations to enforce consistent and disentangled representations. We conduct a thorough evaluation and demonstrate that our GroupVAE significantly improves group disentanglement. Further, we demonstrate that learning group-disentangled representations improve upon downstream tasks, including fair classification and 3D shape-related tasks such as reconstruction, classification, and transfer learning, and is competitive to supervised methods.
Recent work in unsupervised learning has focused on efficient inference and learning in latent variables models. Training these models by maximizing the evidence (marginal likelihood) is typically intractable. Thus, a common approximation is to maximize the Evidence Lower BOund (ELBO) instead. Variational autoencoders (VAE) are a powerful and widely-used class of generative models that optimize the ELBO efficiently for large datasets. However, the VAE's default Gaussian choice for the prior imposes a strong constraint on its ability to represent the true posterior, thereby degrading overall performance. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) would be a richer prior, but cannot be handled efficiently within the VAE framework because of the intractability of the Kullback-Leibler divergence for GMMs. We deviate from the common VAE framework in favor of one with an analytical solution for Gaussian mixture prior. To perform efficient inference for GMM priors, we introduce a new constrained objective based on the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence, which can be computed analytically for GMMs. This new objective allows us to incorporate richer, multi-modal priors into the autoencoding framework. We provide empirical studies on a range of datasets and show that our objective improves upon variational auto-encoding models in density estimation, unsupervised clustering, semi-supervised learning, and face analysis.
This paper presents a novel version of the hypergraph neural network method. This method is utilized to solve the noisy label learning problem. First, we apply the PCA dimensional reduction technique to the feature matrices of the image datasets in order to reduce the "noise" and the redundant features in the feature matrices of the image datasets and to reduce the runtime constructing the hypergraph of the hypergraph neural network method. Then, the classic graph-based semi-supervised learning method, the classic hypergraph based semi-supervised learning method, the graph neural network, the hypergraph neural network, and our proposed hypergraph neural network are employed to solve the noisy label learning problem. The accuracies of these five methods are evaluated and compared. Experimental results show that the hypergraph neural network methods achieve the best performance when the noise level increases. Moreover, the hypergraph neural network methods are at least as good as the graph neural network.