In Online Continual Learning (OCL) a learning system receives a stream of data and sequentially performs prediction and training steps. Important challenges in OCL are concerned with automatic adaptation to the particular non-stationary structure of the data, and with quantification of predictive uncertainty. Motivated by these challenges we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian online learning model by using a (possibly pretrained) neural representation and a state space model over the linear predictor weights. Non-stationarity over the linear predictor weights is modelled using a parameter drift transition density, parametrized by a coefficient that quantifies forgetting. Inference in the model is implemented with efficient Kalman filter recursions which track the posterior distribution over the linear weights, while online SGD updates over the transition dynamics coefficient allows to adapt to the non-stationarity seen in data. While the framework is developed assuming a linear Gaussian model, we also extend it to deal with classification problems and for fine-tuning the deep learning representation. In a set of experiments in multi-class classification using data sets such as CIFAR-100 and CLOC we demonstrate the predictive ability of the model and its flexibility to capture non-stationarity.
Accurately inferring Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) is a critical and challenging task in biology. GRNs model the activatory and inhibitory interactions between genes and are inherently causal in nature. To accurately identify GRNs, perturbational data is required. However, most GRN discovery methods only operate on observational data. Recent advances in neural network-based causal discovery methods have significantly improved causal discovery, including handling interventional data, improvements in performance and scalability. However, applying state-of-the-art (SOTA) causal discovery methods in biology poses challenges, such as noisy data and a large number of samples. Thus, adapting the causal discovery methods is necessary to handle these challenges. In this paper, we introduce DiscoGen, a neural network-based GRN discovery method that can denoise gene expression measurements and handle interventional data. We demonstrate that our model outperforms SOTA neural network-based causal discovery methods.
Although much of the success of Deep Learning builds on learning good representations, a rigorous method to evaluate their quality is lacking. In this paper, we treat the evaluation of representations as a model selection problem and propose to use the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to devise an evaluation metric. Contrary to the established practice of limiting the capacity of the readout model, we design a hybrid discrete and continuous-valued model space for the readout models and employ a switching strategy to combine their predictions. The MDL score takes model complexity, as well as data efficiency into account. As a result, the most appropriate model for the specific task and representation will be chosen, making it a unified measure for comparison. The proposed metric can be efficiently computed with an online method and we present results for pre-trained vision encoders of various architectures (ResNet and ViT) and objective functions (supervised and self-supervised) on a range of downstream tasks. We compare our methods with accuracy-based approaches and show that the latter are inconsistent when multiple readout models are used. Finally, we discuss important properties revealed by our evaluations such as model scaling, preferred readout model, and data efficiency.
Reinforcement learning (RL) has shown great promise with algorithms learning in environments with large state and action spaces purely from scalar reward signals. A crucial challenge for current deep RL algorithms is that they require a tremendous amount of environment interactions for learning. This can be infeasible in situations where such interactions are expensive; such as in robotics. Offline RL algorithms try to address this issue by bootstrapping the learning process from existing logged data without needing to interact with the environment from the very beginning. While online RL algorithms are typically evaluated as a function of the number of environment interactions, there exists no single established protocol for evaluating offline RL methods.In this paper, we propose a sequential approach to evaluate offline RL algorithms as a function of the training set size and thus by their data efficiency. Sequential evaluation provides valuable insights into the data efficiency of the learning process and the robustness of algorithms to distribution changes in the dataset while also harmonizing the visualization of the offline and online learning phases. Our approach is generally applicable and easy to implement. We compare several existing offline RL algorithms using this approach and present insights from a variety of tasks and offline datasets.
We introduce the Never Ending VIsual-classification Stream (NEVIS'22), a benchmark consisting of a stream of over 100 visual classification tasks, sorted chronologically and extracted from papers sampled uniformly from computer vision proceedings spanning the last three decades. The resulting stream reflects what the research community thought was meaningful at any point in time. Despite being limited to classification, the resulting stream has a rich diversity of tasks from OCR, to texture analysis, crowd counting, scene recognition, and so forth. The diversity is also reflected in the wide range of dataset sizes, spanning over four orders of magnitude. Overall, NEVIS'22 poses an unprecedented challenge for current sequential learning approaches due to the scale and diversity of tasks, yet with a low entry barrier as it is limited to a single modality and each task is a classical supervised learning problem. Moreover, we provide a reference implementation including strong baselines and a simple evaluation protocol to compare methods in terms of their trade-off between accuracy and compute. We hope that NEVIS'22 can be useful to researchers working on continual learning, meta-learning, AutoML and more generally sequential learning, and help these communities join forces towards more robust and efficient models that efficiently adapt to a never ending stream of data. Implementations have been made available at https://github.com/deepmind/dm_nevis.
Minimum Description Length (MDL) provides a framework and an objective for principled model evaluation. It formalizes Occam's Razor and can be applied to data from non-stationary sources. In the prequential formulation of MDL, the objective is to minimize the cumulative next-step log-loss when sequentially going through the data and using previous observations for parameter estimation. It thus closely resembles a continual- or online-learning problem. In this study, we evaluate approaches for computing prequential description lengths for image classification datasets with neural networks. Considering the computational cost, we find that online-learning with rehearsal has favorable performance compared to the previously widely used block-wise estimation. We propose forward-calibration to better align the models predictions with the empirical observations and introduce replay-streams, a minibatch incremental training technique to efficiently implement approximate random replay while avoiding large in-memory replay buffers. As a result, we present description lengths for a suite of image classification datasets that improve upon previously reported results by large margins.
The fundamental challenge in causal induction is to infer the underlying graph structure given observational and/or interventional data. Most existing causal induction algorithms operate by generating candidate graphs and then evaluating them using either score-based methods (including continuous optimization) or independence tests. In this work, instead of proposing scoring function or independence tests, we treat the inference process as a black box and design a neural network architecture that learns the mapping from both observational and interventional data to graph structures via supervised training on synthetic graphs. We show that the proposed model generalizes not only to new synthetic graphs but also to naturalistic graphs.
Learning the structure of Bayesian networks and causal relationships from observations is a common goal in several areas of science and technology. We show that the prequential minimum description length principle (MDL) can be used to derive a practical scoring function for Bayesian networks when flexible and overparametrized neural networks are used to model the conditional probability distributions between observed variables. MDL represents an embodiment of Occam's Razor and we obtain plausible and parsimonious graph structures without relying on sparsity inducing priors or other regularizers which must be tuned. Empirically we demonstrate competitive results on synthetic and real-world data. The score often recovers the correct structure even in the presence of strongly nonlinear relationships between variables; a scenario were prior approaches struggle and usually fail. Furthermore we discuss how the the prequential score relates to recent work that infers causal structure from the speed of adaptation when the observations come from a source undergoing distributional shift.
One aim shared by multiple settings, such as continual learning or transfer learning, is to leverage previously acquired knowledge to converge faster on the current task. Usually this is done through fine-tuning, where an implicit assumption is that the network maintains its plasticity, meaning that the performance it can reach on any given task is not affected negatively by previously seen tasks. It has been observed recently that a pretrained model on data from the same distribution as the one it is fine-tuned on might not reach the same generalisation as a freshly initialised one. We build and extend this observation, providing a hypothesis for the mechanics behind it. We discuss the implication of losing plasticity for continual learning which heavily relies on optimising pretrained models.
Highly overparametrized neural networks can display curiously strong generalization performance - a phenomenon that has recently garnered a wealth of theoretical and empirical research in order to better understand it. In contrast to most previous work, which typically considers the performance as a function of the model size, in this paper we empirically study the generalization performance as the size of the training set varies over multiple orders of magnitude. These systematic experiments lead to some interesting and potentially very useful observations; perhaps most notably that training on smaller subsets of the data can lead to more reliable model selection decisions whilst simultaneously enjoying smaller computational costs. Our experiments furthermore allow us to estimate Minimum Description Lengths for common datasets given modern neural network architectures, thereby paving the way for principled model selection taking into account Occams-razor.
* Proceedings of the International Conference on Machine (ICML 2020)