Improving the reliability of deployed machine learning systems often involves developing methods to detect out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs. However, existing research often narrowly focuses on samples from classes that are absent from the training set, neglecting other types of plausible distribution shifts. This limitation reduces the applicability of these methods in real-world scenarios, where systems encounter a wide variety of anomalous inputs. In this study, we categorize five distinct types of distribution shifts and critically evaluate the performance of recent OOD detection methods on each of them. We publicly release our benchmark under the name BROAD (Benchmarking Resilience Over Anomaly Diversity). Our findings reveal that while these methods excel in detecting unknown classes, their performance is inconsistent when encountering other types of distribution shifts. In other words, they only reliably detect unexpected inputs that they have been specifically designed to expect. As a first step toward broad OOD detection, we learn a generative model of existing detection scores with a Gaussian mixture. By doing so, we present an ensemble approach that offers a more consistent and comprehensive solution for broad OOD detection, demonstrating superior performance compared to existing methods. Our code to download BROAD and reproduce our experiments is publicly available.
Handling out-of-distribution (OOD) samples has become a major stake in the real-world deployment of machine learning systems. This work explores the application of self-supervised contrastive learning to the simultaneous detection of two types of OOD samples: unseen classes and adversarial perturbations. Since in practice the distribution of such samples is not known in advance, we do not assume access to OOD examples. We show that similarity functions trained with contrastive learning can be leveraged with the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) two-sample test to verify whether two independent sets of samples are drawn from the same distribution. Inspired by this approach, we introduce CADet (Contrastive Anomaly Detection), a method based on image augmentations to perform anomaly detection on single samples. CADet compares favorably to adversarial detection methods to detect adversarially perturbed samples on ImageNet. Simultaneously, it achieves comparable performance to unseen label detection methods on two challenging benchmarks: ImageNet-O and iNaturalist. CADet is fully self-supervised and requires neither labels for in-distribution samples nor access to OOD examples.
A well-known failure mode of neural networks corresponds to high confidence erroneous predictions, especially for data that somehow differs from the training distribution. Such an unsafe behaviour limits their applicability. To counter that, we show that models offering accurate confidence levels can be defined via adding constraints in their internal representations. That is, we encode class labels as fixed unique binary vectors, or class codes, and use those to enforce class-dependent activation patterns throughout the model. Resulting predictors are dubbed Total Activation Classifiers (TAC), and TAC is used as an additional component to a base classifier to indicate how reliable a prediction is. Given a data instance, TAC slices intermediate representations into disjoint sets and reduces such slices into scalars, yielding activation profiles. During training, activation profiles are pushed towards the code assigned to a given training instance. At testing time, one can predict the class corresponding to the code that best matches the activation profile of an example. Empirically, we observe that the resemblance between activation patterns and their corresponding codes results in an inexpensive unsupervised approach for inducing discriminative confidence scores. Namely, we show that TAC is at least as good as state-of-the-art confidence scores extracted from existing models, while strictly improving the model's value on the rejection setting. TAC was also observed to work well on multiple types of architectures and data modalities.
We study settings where gradient penalties are used alongside risk minimization with the goal of obtaining predictors satisfying different notions of monotonicity. Specifically, we present two sets of contributions. In the first part of the paper, we show that different choices of penalties define the regions of the input space where the property is observed. As such, previous methods result in models that are monotonic only in a small volume of the input space. We thus propose an approach that uses mixtures of training instances and random points to populate the space and enforce the penalty in a much larger region. As a second set of contributions, we introduce regularization strategies that enforce other notions of monotonicity in different settings. In this case, we consider applications, such as image classification and generative modeling, where monotonicity is not a hard constraint but can help improve some aspects of the model. Namely, we show that inducing monotonicity can be beneficial in applications such as: (1) allowing for controllable data generation, (2) defining strategies to detect anomalous data, and (3) generating explanations for predictions. Our proposed approaches do not introduce relevant computational overhead while leading to efficient procedures that provide extra benefits over baseline models.
Learning guarantees often rely on assumptions of i.i.d. data, which will likely be violated in practice once predictors are deployed to perform real-world tasks. Domain adaptation approaches thus appeared as a useful framework yielding extra flexibility in that distinct train and test data distributions are supported, provided that other assumptions are satisfied such as covariate shift, which expects the conditional distributions over labels to be independent of the underlying data distribution. Several approaches were introduced in order to induce generalization across varying train and test data sources, and those often rely on the general idea of domain-invariance, in such a way that the data-generating distributions are to be disregarded by the prediction model. In this contribution, we tackle the problem of generalizing across data sources by approaching it from the opposite direction: we consider a conditional modeling approach in which predictions, in addition to being dependent on the input data, use information relative to the underlying data-generating distribution. For instance, the model has an explicit mechanism to adapt to changing environments and/or new data sources. We argue that such an approach is more generally applicable than current domain adaptation methods since it does not require extra assumptions such as covariate shift and further yields simpler training algorithms that avoid a common source of training instabilities caused by minimax formulations, often employed in domain-invariant methods.
In this contribution, we augment the metric learning setting by introducing a parametric pseudo-distance, trained jointly with the encoder. Several interpretations are thus drawn for the learned distance-like model's output. We first show it approximates a likelihood ratio which can be used for hypothesis tests, and that it further induces a large divergence across the joint distributions of pairs of examples from the same and from different classes. Evaluation is performed under the verification setting consisting of determining whether sets of examples belong to the same class, even if such classes are novel and were never presented to the model during training. Empirical evaluation shows such method defines an end-to-end approach for the verification problem, able to attain better performance than simple scorers such as those based on cosine similarity and further outperforming widely used downstream classifiers. We further observe training is much simplified under the proposed approach compared to metric learning with actual distances, requiring no complex scheme to harvest pairs of examples.
Despite the growing interest in unsupervised learning, extracting meaningful knowledge from unlabelled audio remains an open challenge. To take a step in this direction, we recently proposed a problem-agnostic speech encoder (PASE), that combines a convolutional encoder followed by multiple neural networks, called workers, tasked to solve self-supervised problems (i.e., ones that do not require manual annotations as ground truth). PASE was shown to capture relevant speech information, including speaker voice-print and phonemes. This paper proposes PASE+, an improved version of PASE for robust speech recognition in noisy and reverberant environments. To this end, we employ an online speech distortion module, that contaminates the input signals with a variety of random disturbances. We then propose a revised encoder that better learns short- and long-term speech dynamics with an efficient combination of recurrent and convolutional networks. Finally, we refine the set of workers used in self-supervision to encourage better cooperation. Results on TIMIT, DIRHA and CHiME-5 show that PASE+ significantly outperforms both the previous version of PASE as well as common acoustic features. Interestingly, PASE+ learns transferable representations suitable for highly mismatched acoustic conditions.
While significant improvements have been made in recent years in terms of end-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance, such improvements were obtained through the use of very large neural networks, unfit for embedded use on edge devices. That being said, in this paper, we work on simplifying and compressing Transformer-based encoder-decoder architectures for the end-to-end ASR task. We empirically introduce a more compact Speech-Transformer by investigating the impact of discarding particular modules on the performance of the model. Moreover, we evaluate reducing the numerical precision of our network's weights and activations while maintaining the performance of the full-precision model. Our experiments show that we can reduce the number of parameters of the full-precision model and then further compress the model 4x by fully quantizing to 8-bit fixed point precision.
This article presents a novel approach for learning domain-invariant speaker embeddings using Generative Adversarial Networks. The main idea is to confuse a domain discriminator so that is can't tell if embeddings are from the source or target domains. We train several GAN variants using our proposed framework and apply them to the speaker verification task. On the challenging NIST-SRE 2016 dataset, we are able to match the performance of a strong baseline x-vector system. In contrast to the the baseline systems which are dependent on dimensionality reduction (LDA) and an external classifier (PLDA), our proposed speaker embeddings can be scored using simple cosine distance. This is achieved by optimizing our models end-to-end, using an angular margin loss function. Furthermore, we are able to significantly boost verification performance by averaging our different GAN models at the score level, achieving a relative improvement of 7.2% over the baseline.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can successfully approximate a probability distribution and produce realistic samples. However, open questions such as sufficient convergence conditions and mode collapse still persist. In this paper, we build on existing work in the area by proposing a novel framework for training the generator against an ensemble of discriminator networks, which can be seen as a one-student/multiple-teachers setting. We formalize this problem within the full-information adversarial bandit framework, where we evaluate the capability of an algorithm to select mixtures of discriminators for providing the generator with feedback during learning. To this end, we propose a reward function which reflects the progress made by the generator and dynamically update the mixture weights allocated to each discriminator. We also draw connections between our algorithm and stochastic optimization methods and then show that existing approaches using multiple discriminators in literature can be recovered from our framework. We argue that less expressive discriminators are smoother and have a general coarse grained view of the modes map, which enforces the generator to cover a wide portion of the data distribution support. On the other hand, highly expressive discriminators ensure samples quality. Finally, experimental results show that our approach improves samples quality and diversity over existing baselines by effectively learning a curriculum. These results also support the claim that weaker discriminators have higher entropy improving modes coverage.