The ability to detect intent in dialogue systems has become increasingly important in modern technology. These systems often generate a large amount of unlabeled data, and manually labeling this data requires substantial human effort. Semi-supervised methods attempt to remedy this cost by using a model trained on a few labeled examples and then by assigning pseudo-labels to further a subset of unlabeled examples that has a model prediction confidence higher than a certain threshold. However, one particularly perilous consequence of these methods is the risk of picking an imbalanced set of examples across classes, which could lead to poor labels. In the present work, we describe Top-K K-Nearest Neighbor (TK-KNN), which uses a more robust pseudo-labeling approach based on distance in the embedding space while maintaining a balanced set of pseudo-labeled examples across classes through a ranking-based approach. Experiments on several datasets show that TK-KNN outperforms existing models, particularly when labeled data is scarce on popular datasets such as CLINC150 and Banking77. Code is available at https://github.com/ServiceNow/tk-knn
Training a deep learning model to classify histopathological images is challenging, because of the color and shape variability of the cells and tissues, and the reduced amount of available data, which does not allow proper learning of those variations. Variations can come from the image acquisition process, for example, due to different cell staining protocols or tissue deformation. To tackle this challenge, Data Augmentation (DA) can be used during training to generate additional samples by applying transformations to existing ones, to help the model become invariant to those color and shape transformations. The problem with DA is that it is not only dataset-specific but it also requires domain knowledge, which is not always available. Without this knowledge, selecting the right transformations can only be done using heuristics or through a computationally demanding search. To address this, we propose an automatic DA learning method. In this method, the DA parameters, i.e. the transformation parameters needed to improve the model training, are considered learnable and are learned automatically using a bilevel optimization approach in a quick and efficient way using truncated backpropagation. We validated the method on six different datasets. Experimental results show that our model can learn color and affine transformations that are more helpful to train an image classifier than predefined DA transformations, which are also more expensive as they need to be selected before the training by grid search on a validation set. We also show that similarly to a model trained with RandAugment, our model has also only a few method-specific hyperparameters to tune but is performing better. This makes our model a good solution for learning the best DA parameters, especially in the context of histopathological images, where defining potentially useful transformation heuristically is not trivial.
The generative modeling landscape has experienced tremendous growth in recent years, particularly in generating natural images and art. Recent techniques have shown impressive potential in creating complex visual compositions while delivering impressive realism and quality. However, state-of-the-art methods have been focusing on the narrow domain of natural images, while other distributions remain unexplored. In this paper, we introduce the problem of text-to-figure generation, that is creating scientific figures of papers from text descriptions. We present FigGen, a diffusion-based approach for text-to-figure as well as the main challenges of the proposed task. Code and models are available at https://github.com/joanrod/figure-diffusion
Text-based game environments are challenging because agents must deal with long sequences of text, execute compositional actions using text and learn from sparse rewards. We address these challenges by proposing Long-Context Language Decision Transformers (LLDTs), a framework that is based on long transformer language models and decision transformers (DTs). LLDTs extend DTs with 3 components: (1) exponential tilt to guide the agent towards high obtainable goals, (2) novel goal conditioning methods yielding significantly better results than the traditional return-to-go (sum of all future rewards), and (3) a model of future observations. Our ablation results show that predicting future observations improves agent performance. To the best of our knowledge, LLDTs are the first to address offline RL with DTs on these challenging games. Our experiments show that LLDTs achieve the highest scores among many different types of agents on some of the most challenging Jericho games, such as Enchanter.
Synthetic image generation has recently experienced significant improvements in domains such as natural image or art generation. However, the problem of figure and diagram generation remains unexplored. A challenging aspect of generating figures and diagrams is effectively rendering readable texts within the images. To alleviate this problem, we present OCR-VQGAN, an image encoder, and decoder that leverages OCR pre-trained features to optimize a text perceptual loss, encouraging the architecture to preserve high-fidelity text and diagram structure. To explore our approach, we introduce the Paper2Fig100k dataset, with over 100k images of figures and texts from research papers. The figures show architecture diagrams and methodologies of articles available at arXiv.org from fields like artificial intelligence and computer vision. Figures usually include text and discrete objects, e.g., boxes in a diagram, with lines and arrows that connect them. We demonstrate the effectiveness of OCR-VQGAN by conducting several experiments on the task of figure reconstruction. Additionally, we explore the qualitative and quantitative impact of weighting different perceptual metrics in the overall loss function. We release code, models, and dataset at https://github.com/joanrod/ocr-vqgan.
A well-known failure mode of neural networks corresponds to high confidence erroneous predictions, especially for data that somehow differs from the training distribution. Such an unsafe behaviour limits their applicability. To counter that, we show that models offering accurate confidence levels can be defined via adding constraints in their internal representations. That is, we encode class labels as fixed unique binary vectors, or class codes, and use those to enforce class-dependent activation patterns throughout the model. Resulting predictors are dubbed Total Activation Classifiers (TAC), and TAC is used as an additional component to a base classifier to indicate how reliable a prediction is. Given a data instance, TAC slices intermediate representations into disjoint sets and reduces such slices into scalars, yielding activation profiles. During training, activation profiles are pushed towards the code assigned to a given training instance. At testing time, one can predict the class corresponding to the code that best matches the activation profile of an example. Empirically, we observe that the resemblance between activation patterns and their corresponding codes results in an inexpensive unsupervised approach for inducing discriminative confidence scores. Namely, we show that TAC is at least as good as state-of-the-art confidence scores extracted from existing models, while strictly improving the model's value on the rejection setting. TAC was also observed to work well on multiple types of architectures and data modalities.
Text-based dialogues are now widely used to solve real-world problems. In cases where solution strategies are already known, they can sometimes be codified into workflows and used to guide humans or artificial agents through the task of helping clients. We are interested in the situation where a formal workflow may not yet exist, but we wish to discover the steps of actions that have been taken to resolve problems. We examine a novel transformer-based approach for this situation and we present experiments where we summarize dialogues in the Action-Based Conversations Dataset (ABCD) with workflows. Since the ABCD dialogues were generated using known workflows to guide agents we can evaluate our ability to extract such workflows using ground truth sequences of action steps, organized as workflows. We propose and evaluate an approach that conditions models on the set of allowable action steps and we show that using this strategy we can improve workflow discovery (WD) performance. Our conditioning approach also improves zero-shot and few-shot WD performance when transferring learned models to entirely new domains (i.e. the MultiWOZ setting). Further, a modified variant of our architecture achieves state-of-the-art performance on the related but different problems of Action State Tracking (AST) and Cascading Dialogue Success (CDS) on the ABCD.
In this paper, we explore the use of GAN-based few-shot data augmentation as a method to improve few-shot classification performance. We perform an exploration into how a GAN can be fine-tuned for such a task (one of which is in a class-incremental manner), as well as a rigorous empirical investigation into how well these models can perform to improve few-shot classification. We identify issues related to the difficulty of training such generative models under a purely supervised regime with very few examples, as well as issues regarding the evaluation protocols of existing works. We also find that in this regime, classification accuracy is highly sensitive to how the classes of the dataset are randomly split. Therefore, we propose a semi-supervised fine-tuning approach as a more pragmatic way forward to address these problems.
Data is the driving force of machine learning, with the amount and quality of training data often being more important for the performance of a system than architecture and training details. But collecting, processing and annotating real data at scale is difficult, expensive, and frequently raises additional privacy, fairness and legal concerns. Synthetic data is a powerful tool with the potential to address these shortcomings: 1) it is cheap 2) supports rich ground-truth annotations 3) offers full control over data and 4) can circumvent or mitigate problems regarding bias, privacy and licensing. Unfortunately, software tools for effective data generation are less mature than those for architecture design and training, which leads to fragmented generation efforts. To address these problems we introduce Kubric, an open-source Python framework that interfaces with PyBullet and Blender to generate photo-realistic scenes, with rich annotations, and seamlessly scales to large jobs distributed over thousands of machines, and generating TBs of data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Kubric by presenting a series of 13 different generated datasets for tasks ranging from studying 3D NeRF models to optical flow estimation. We release Kubric, the used assets, all of the generation code, as well as the rendered datasets for reuse and modification.