Extracting and using class-discriminative features is critical for fine-grained recognition. Existing works have demonstrated the possibility of applying deep CNNs to exploit features that distinguish similar classes. However, CNNs suffer from problems including frequency bias and loss of detailed local information, which restricts the performance of recognizing fine-grained categories. To address the challenge, we propose a novel texture branch as complimentary to the CNN branch for feature extraction. We innovatively utilize Gabor filters as a powerful extractor to exploit texture features, motivated by the capability of Gabor filters in effectively capturing multi-frequency features and detailed local information. We implement several designs to enhance the effectiveness of Gabor filters, including imposing constraints on parameter values and developing a learning method to determine the optimal parameters. Moreover, we introduce a statistical feature extractor to utilize informative statistical information from the signals captured by Gabor filters, and a gate selection mechanism to enable efficient computation by only considering qualified regions as input for texture extraction. Through the integration of features from the Gabor-filter-based texture branch and CNN-based semantic branch, we achieve comprehensive information extraction. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on multiple datasets, including CUB-200-2011, NA-bird, Stanford Dogs, and GTOS-mobile. State-of-the-art performance is achieved using our approach.
As a representative cyber-physical system (CPS), robotic manipulator has been widely adopted in various academic research and industrial processes, indicating its potential to act as a universal interface between the cyber and the physical worlds. Recent studies in robotics manipulation have started employing artificial intelligence (AI) approaches as controllers to achieve better adaptability and performance. However, the inherent challenge of explaining AI components introduces uncertainty and unreliability to these AI-enabled robotics systems, necessitating a reliable development platform for system design and performance assessment. As a foundational step towards building reliable AI-enabled robotics systems, we propose a public industrial benchmark for robotics manipulation in this paper. It leverages NVIDIA Omniverse Isaac Sim as the simulation platform, encompassing eight representative manipulation tasks and multiple AI software controllers. An extensive evaluation is conducted to analyze the performance of AI controllers in solving robotics manipulation tasks, enabling a thorough understanding of their effectiveness. To further demonstrate the applicability of our benchmark, we develop a falsification framework that is compatible with physical simulators and OpenAI Gym environments. This framework bridges the gap between traditional testing methods and modern physics engine-based simulations. The effectiveness of different optimization methods in falsifying AI-enabled robotics manipulation with physical simulators is examined via a falsification test. Our work not only establishes a foundation for the design and development of AI-enabled robotics systems but also provides practical experience and guidance to practitioners in this field, promoting further research in this critical academic and industrial domain.
Training multimodal networks requires a vast amount of data due to their larger parameter space compared to unimodal networks. Active learning is a widely used technique for reducing data annotation costs by selecting only those samples that could contribute to improving model performance. However, current active learning strategies are mostly designed for unimodal tasks, and when applied to multimodal data, they often result in biased sample selection from the dominant modality. This unfairness hinders balanced multimodal learning, which is crucial for achieving optimal performance. To address this issue, we propose three guidelines for designing a more balanced multimodal active learning strategy. Following these guidelines, a novel approach is proposed to achieve more fair data selection by modulating the gradient embedding with the dominance degree among modalities. Our studies demonstrate that the proposed method achieves more balanced multimodal learning by avoiding greedy sample selection from the dominant modality. Our approach outperforms existing active learning strategies on a variety of multimodal classification tasks. Overall, our work highlights the importance of balancing sample selection in multimodal active learning and provides a practical solution for achieving more balanced active learning for multimodal classification.
Continual Semantic Segmentation (CSS) extends static semantic segmentation by incrementally introducing new classes for training. To alleviate the catastrophic forgetting issue in CSS, a memory buffer that stores a small number of samples from the previous classes is constructed for replay. However, existing methods select the memory samples either randomly or based on a single-factor-driven handcrafted strategy, which has no guarantee to be optimal. In this work, we propose a novel memory sample selection mechanism that selects informative samples for effective replay in a fully automatic way by considering comprehensive factors including sample diversity and class performance. Our mechanism regards the selection operation as a decision-making process and learns an optimal selection policy that directly maximizes the validation performance on a reward set. To facilitate the selection decision, we design a novel state representation and a dual-stage action space. Our extensive experiments on Pascal-VOC 2012 and ADE 20K datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance achieved, outperforming the second-place one by 12.54% for the 6stage setting on Pascal-VOC 2012.
New architecture GPUs like A100 are now equipped with multi-instance GPU (MIG) technology, which allows the GPU to be partitioned into multiple small, isolated instances. This technology provides more flexibility for users to support both deep learning training and inference workloads, but efficiently utilizing it can still be challenging. The vision of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive and practical benchmark study for MIG in order to eliminate the need for tedious manual benchmarking and tuning efforts. To achieve this vision, the paper presents MIGPerf, an open-source tool that streamlines the benchmark study for MIG. Using MIGPerf, the authors conduct a series of experiments, including deep learning training and inference characterization on MIG, GPU sharing characterization, and framework compatibility with MIG. The results of these experiments provide new insights and guidance for users to effectively employ MIG, and lay the foundation for further research on the orchestration of hybrid training and inference workloads on MIGs. The code and results are released on https://github.com/MLSysOps/MIGProfiler. This work is still in progress and more results will be published soon.
Quadruped locomotion now has acquired the skill to traverse or even sprint on uneven terrains in remote uncontrolled environment. However, surviving in the wild requires not only the maneuverability, but also the ability to handle unexpected hardware failures. We present the first deep reinforcement learning based methodology to train fault-tolerant controllers, which can bring an injured quadruped back home safely and speedily. We adopt the teacher-student framework to train the controller with close-to-reality joint-locking failure in the simulation, which can be zero-shot transferred to the physical robot without any fine-tuning. Extensive simulation and real-world experiments demonstrate that our fault-tolerant controller can efficiently lead a quadruped stably when it faces joint failure during locomotion.
While action recognition (AR) has gained large improvements with the introduction of large-scale video datasets and the development of deep neural networks, AR models robust to challenging environments in real-world scenarios are still under-explored. We focus on the task of action recognition in dark environments, which can be applied to fields such as surveillance and autonomous driving at night. Intuitively, current deep networks along with visual enhancement techniques should be able to handle AR in dark environments, however, it is observed that this is not always the case in practice. To dive deeper into exploring solutions for AR in dark environments, we launched the UG2+ Challenge Track 2 (UG2-2) in IEEE CVPR 2021, with a goal of evaluating and advancing the robustness of AR models in dark environments. The challenge builds and expands on top of a novel ARID dataset, the first dataset for the task of dark video AR, and guides models to tackle such a task in both fully and semi-supervised manners. Baseline results utilizing current AR models and enhancement methods are reported, justifying the challenging nature of this task with substantial room for improvements. Thanks to the active participation from the research community, notable advances have been made in participants' solutions, while analysis of these solutions helped better identify possible directions to tackle the challenge of AR in dark environments.
This paper introduces a novel self-supervised method that leverages incoherence detection for video representation learning. It roots from the observation that visual systems of human beings can easily identify video incoherence based on their comprehensive understanding of videos. Specifically, the training sample, denoted as the incoherent clip, is constructed by multiple sub-clips hierarchically sampled from the same raw video with various lengths of incoherence between each other. The network is trained to learn high-level representation by predicting the location and length of incoherence given the incoherent clip as input. Additionally, intra-video contrastive learning is introduced to maximize the mutual information between incoherent clips from the same raw video. We evaluate our proposed method through extensive experiments on action recognition and video retrieval utilizing various backbone networks. Experiments show that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance across different backbone networks and different datasets compared with previous coherence-based methods.
Domain adaptation (DA) approaches address domain shift and enable networks to be applied to different scenarios. Although various image DA approaches have been proposed in recent years, there is limited research towards video DA. This is partly due to the complexity in adapting the different modalities of features in videos, which includes the correlation features extracted as long-term dependencies of pixels across spatiotemporal dimensions. The correlation features are highly associated with action classes and proven their effectiveness in accurate video feature extraction through the supervised action recognition task. Yet correlation features of the same action would differ across domains due to domain shift. Therefore we propose a novel Adversarial Correlation Adaptation Network (ACAN) to align action videos by aligning pixel correlations. ACAN aims to minimize the distribution of correlation information, termed as Pixel Correlation Discrepancy (PCD). Additionally, video DA research is also limited by the lack of cross-domain video datasets with larger domain shifts. We, therefore, introduce a novel HMDB-ARID dataset with a larger domain shift caused by a larger statistical difference between domains. This dataset is built in an effort to leverage current datasets for dark video classification. Empirical results demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our proposed ACAN for both existing and the new video DA datasets.