Unsupervised anomaly detection in medical images such as chest radiographs is stepping into the spotlight as it mitigates the scarcity of the labor-intensive and costly expert annotation of anomaly data. However, nearly all existing methods are formulated as a one-class classification trained only on representations from the normal class and discard a potentially significant portion of the unlabeled data. This paper focuses on a more practical setting, dual distribution anomaly detection for chest X-rays, using the entire training data, including both normal and unlabeled images. Inspired by a modern self-supervised vision transformer model trained using partial image inputs to reconstruct missing image regions -- we propose AMAE, a two-stage algorithm for adaptation of the pre-trained masked autoencoder (MAE). Starting from MAE initialization, AMAE first creates synthetic anomalies from only normal training images and trains a lightweight classifier on frozen transformer features. Subsequently, we propose an adaptation strategy to leverage unlabeled images containing anomalies. The adaptation scheme is accomplished by assigning pseudo-labels to unlabeled images and using two separate MAE based modules to model the normative and anomalous distributions of pseudo-labeled images. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptation strategy is evaluated with different anomaly ratios in an unlabeled training set. AMAE leads to consistent performance gains over competing self-supervised and dual distribution anomaly detection methods, setting the new state-of-the-art on three public chest X-ray benchmarks: RSNA, NIH-CXR, and VinDr-CXR.
There is a strong incentive to develop computational pathology models to i) ease the burden of tissue typology annotation from whole slide histological images; ii) transfer knowledge, e.g., tissue class separability from the withheld source domain to the distributionally shifted unlabeled target domain, and simultaneously iii) detect Open Set samples, i.e., unseen novel categories not present in the training source domain. This paper proposes a highly practical setting by addressing the abovementioned challenges in one fell swoop, i.e., source-free Open Set domain adaptation (SF-OSDA), which addresses the situation where a model pre-trained on the inaccessible source dataset can be adapted on the unlabeled target dataset containing Open Set samples. The central tenet of our proposed method is distilling knowledge from a self-supervised vision transformer trained in the target domain. We propose a novel style-based data augmentation used as hard positives for self-training a vision transformer in the target domain, yielding strongly contextualized embedding. Subsequently, semantically similar target images are clustered while the source model provides their corresponding weak pseudo-labels with unreliable confidence. Furthermore, we propose cluster relative maximum logit score (CRMLS) to rectify the confidence of the weak pseudo-labels and compute weighted class prototypes in the contextualized embedding space that are utilized for adapting the source model on the target domain. Our method significantly outperforms the previous methods, including open set detection, test-time adaptation, and SF-OSDA methods, setting the new state-of-the-art on three public histopathological datasets of colorectal cancer (CRC) assessment- Kather-16, Kather-19, and CRCTP. Our code is available at https://github.com/LTS5/Proto-SF-OSDA.
With the rise of open data, identifiability of individuals based on 3D renderings obtained from routine structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head has become a growing privacy concern. To protect subject privacy, several algorithms have been developed to de-identify imaging data using blurring, defacing or refacing. Completely removing facial structures provides the best re-identification protection but can significantly impact post-processing steps, like brain morphometry. As an alternative, refacing methods that replace individual facial structures with generic templates have a lower effect on the geometry and intensity distribution of original scans, and are able to provide more consistent post-processing results by the price of higher re-identification risk and computational complexity. In the current study, we propose a novel method for anonymised face generation for defaced 3D T1-weighted scans based on a 3D conditional generative adversarial network. To evaluate the performance of the proposed de-identification tool, a comparative study was conducted between several existing defacing and refacing tools, with two different segmentation algorithms (FAST and Morphobox). The aim was to evaluate (i) impact on brain morphometry reproducibility, (ii) re-identification risk, (iii) balance between (i) and (ii), and (iv) the processing time. The proposed method takes 9 seconds for face generation and is suitable for recovering consistent post-processing results after defacing.
Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (vSLAM) is a widely used technique in robotics and computer vision that enables a robot to create a map of an unfamiliar environment using a camera sensor while simultaneously tracking its position over time. In this paper, we propose a novel RGBD vSLAM algorithm that can learn a memory-efficient, dense 3D geometry, and semantic segmentation of an indoor scene in an online manner. Our pipeline combines classical 3D vision-based tracking and loop closing with neural fields-based mapping. The mapping network learns the SDF of the scene as well as RGB, depth, and semantic maps of any novel view using only a set of keyframes. Additionally, we extend our pipeline to large scenes by using multiple local mapping networks. Extensive experiments on well-known benchmark datasets confirm that our approach provides robust tracking, mapping, and semantic labeling even with noisy, sparse, or no input depth. Overall, our proposed algorithm can greatly enhance scene perception and assist with a range of robot control problems.
Purpose: Biophysical models of diffusion MRI have been developed to characterize microstructure in various tissues, but existing models are not suitable for tissue composed of permeable spherical cells. In this study we introduce Cellular Exchange Imaging (CEXI), a model tailored for permeable spherical cells, and compares its performance to a related Ball \& Sphere (BS) model that neglects permeability. Methods: We generated DW-MRI signals using Monte-Carlo simulations with a PGSE sequence in numerical substrates made of spherical cells and their extracellular space for a range of membrane permeability. From these signals, the properties of the substrates were inferred using both BS and CEXI models. Results: CEXI outperformed the impermeable model by providing more stable estimates cell size and intracellular volume fraction that were diffusion time-independent. Notably, CEXI accurately estimated the exchange time for low to moderate permeability levels previously reported in other studies ($\kappa<25\mu m/s$). However, in highly permeable substrates ($\kappa=50\mu m/s$), the estimated parameters were less stable, particularly the diffusion coefficients. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of modeling the exchange time to accurately quantify microstructure properties in permeable cellular substrates. Future studies should evaluate CEXI in clinical applications such as lymph nodes, investigate exchange time as a potential biomarker of tumor severity, and develop more appropriate tissue models that account for anisotropic diffusion and highly permeable membranes.
Most self-supervised methods for representation learning leverage a cross-view consistency objective i.e. they maximize the representation similarity of a given image's augmented views. Recent work NNCLR goes beyond the cross-view paradigm and uses positive pairs from different images obtained via nearest neighbor bootstrapping in a contrastive setting. We empirically show that as opposed to the contrastive learning setting which relies on negative samples, incorporating nearest neighbor bootstrapping in a self-distillation scheme can lead to a performance drop or even collapse. We scrutinize the reason for this unexpected behavior and provide a solution. We propose to adaptively bootstrap neighbors based on the estimated quality of the latent space. We report consistent improvements compared to the naive bootstrapping approach and the original baselines. Our approach leads to performance improvements for various self-distillation method/backbone combinations and standard downstream tasks. Our code will be released upon acceptance.
Learning dense visual representations without labels is an arduous task and more so from scene-centric data. We propose to tackle this challenging problem by proposing a Cross-view consistency objective with an Online Clustering mechanism (CrOC) to discover and segment the semantics of the views. In the absence of hand-crafted priors, the resulting method is more generalizable and does not require a cumbersome pre-processing step. More importantly, the clustering algorithm conjointly operates on the features of both views, thereby elegantly bypassing the issue of content not represented in both views and the ambiguous matching of objects from one crop to the other. We demonstrate excellent performance on linear and unsupervised segmentation transfer tasks on various datasets and similarly for video object segmentation. Our code and pre-trained models are publicly available at https://github.com/stegmuel/CrOC.
Most recent test-time adaptation methods focus on only classification tasks, use specialized network architectures, destroy model calibration or rely on lightweight information from the source domain. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel Test-time Self-Learning method with automatic Adversarial augmentation dubbed TeSLA for adapting a pre-trained source model to the unlabeled streaming test data. In contrast to conventional self-learning methods based on cross-entropy, we introduce a new test-time loss function through an implicitly tight connection with the mutual information and online knowledge distillation. Furthermore, we propose a learnable efficient adversarial augmentation module that further enhances online knowledge distillation by simulating high entropy augmented images. Our method achieves state-of-the-art classification and segmentation results on several benchmarks and types of domain shifts, particularly on challenging measurement shifts of medical images. TeSLA also benefits from several desirable properties compared to competing methods in terms of calibration, uncertainty metrics, insensitivity to model architectures, and source training strategies, all supported by extensive ablations. Our code and models are available on GitHub.