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Muzhi Li, Minda Hu, Irwin King, Ho-fung Leung

The Knowledge Graph Entity Typing (KGET) task aims to predict missing type annotations for entities in knowledge graphs. Recent works only utilize the \textit{\textbf{structural knowledge}} in the local neighborhood of entities, disregarding \textit{\textbf{semantic knowledge}} in the textual representations of entities, relations, and types that are also crucial for type inference. Additionally, we observe that the interaction between semantic and structural knowledge can be utilized to address the false-negative problem. In this paper, we propose a novel \textbf{\underline{S}}emantic and \textbf{\underline{S}}tructure-aware KG \textbf{\underline{E}}ntity \textbf{\underline{T}}yping~{(SSET)} framework, which is composed of three modules. First, the \textit{Semantic Knowledge Encoding} module encodes factual knowledge in the KG with a Masked Entity Typing task. Then, the \textit{Structural Knowledge Aggregation} module aggregates knowledge from the multi-hop neighborhood of entities to infer missing types. Finally, the \textit{Unsupervised Type Re-ranking} module utilizes the inference results from the two models above to generate type predictions that are robust to false-negative samples. Extensive experiments show that SSET significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods.

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Xiaoyan Hu, Farzan Farnia, Ho-fung Leung

Reinforcement learning (RL) problems where the learner attempts to infer an unobserved reward from some feedback variables have been studied in several recent papers. The setting of Interaction-Grounded Learning (IGL) is an example of such feedback-based reinforcement learning tasks where the learner optimizes the return by inferring latent binary rewards from the interaction with the environment. In the IGL setting, a relevant assumption used in the RL literature is that the feedback variable $Y$ is conditionally independent of the context-action $(X,A)$ given the latent reward $R$. In this work, we propose Variational Information-based IGL (VI-IGL) as an information-theoretic method to enforce the conditional independence assumption in the IGL-based RL problem. The VI-IGL framework learns a reward decoder using an information-based objective based on the conditional mutual information (MI) between the context-action $(X,A)$ and the feedback variable $Y$ observed from the environment. To estimate and optimize the information-based terms for the continuous random variables in the RL problem, VI-IGL leverages the variational representation of mutual information and results in a min-max optimization problem. Furthermore, we extend the VI-IGL framework to general $f$-Information measures in the information theory literature, leading to the generalized $f$-VI-IGL framework to address the RL problem under the IGL condition. Finally, we provide the empirical results of applying the VI-IGL method to several reinforcement learning settings, which indicate an improved performance in comparison to the previous IGL-based RL algorithm.

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Yulai Zhao, Wenhao Zhan, Xiaoyan Hu, Ho-fung Leung, Farzan Farnia, Wen Sun, Jason D. Lee

We study risk-sensitive Reinforcement Learning (RL), where we aim to maximize the Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) with a fixed risk tolerance $\tau$. Prior theoretical work studying risk-sensitive RL focuses on the tabular Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) setting. To extend CVaR RL to settings where state space is large, function approximation must be deployed. We study CVaR RL in low-rank MDPs with nonlinear function approximation. Low-rank MDPs assume the underlying transition kernel admits a low-rank decomposition, but unlike prior linear models, low-rank MDPs do not assume the feature or state-action representation is known. We propose a novel Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) bonus-driven algorithm to carefully balance the interplay between exploration, exploitation, and representation learning in CVaR RL. We prove that our algorithm achieves a sample complexity of $\tilde{O}\left(\frac{H^7 A^2 d^4}{\tau^2 \epsilon^2}\right)$ to yield an $\epsilon$-optimal CVaR, where $H$ is the length of each episode, $A$ is the capacity of action space, and $d$ is the dimension of representations. Computational-wise, we design a novel discretized Least-Squares Value Iteration (LSVI) algorithm for the CVaR objective as the planning oracle and show that we can find the near-optimal policy in a polynomial running time with a Maximum Likelihood Estimation oracle. To our knowledge, this is the first provably efficient CVaR RL algorithm in low-rank MDPs.

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Nafees Ahmad, Savio Ho-Chit Chow, Ho-fung Leung

Human activity recognition (HAR) through wearable devices has received much interest due to its numerous applications in fitness tracking, wellness screening, and supported living. As a result, we have seen a great deal of work in this field. Traditional deep learning (DL) has set a state of the art performance for HAR domain. However, it ignores the data's structure and the association between consecutive time stamps. To address this constraint, we offer an approach based on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) for structuring the input representation and exploiting the relations among the samples. However, even when using a simple graph convolution network to eliminate this shortage, there are still several limiting factors, such as inter-class activities issues, skewed class distribution, and a lack of consideration for sensor data priority, all of which harm the HAR model's performance. To improve the current HAR model's performance, we investigate novel possibilities within the framework of graph structure to achieve highly discriminated and rich activity features. We propose a model for (1) time-series-graph module that converts raw data from HAR dataset into graphs; (2) Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (GCNs) to discover local dependencies and correlations between neighboring nodes; and (3) self-attention GNN encoder to identify sensors interactions and data priorities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for HAR, which introduces a GNN-based approach that incorporates both the GCN and the attention mechanism. By employing a uniform evaluation method, our framework significantly improves the performance on hospital patient's activities dataset comparatively considered other state of the art baseline methods.

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Hon Tik Tse, Ho-fung Leung

Multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) can model many real world applications. However, many MARL approaches rely on epsilon greedy for exploration, which may discourage visiting advantageous states in hard scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new approach QMIX(SEG) for tackling MARL. It makes use of the value function factorization method QMIX to train per-agent policies and a novel Semantic Epsilon Greedy (SEG) exploration strategy. SEG is a simple extension to the conventional epsilon greedy exploration strategy, yet it is experimentally shown to greatly improve the performance of MARL. We first cluster actions into groups of actions with similar effects and then use the groups in a bi-level epsilon greedy exploration hierarchy for action selection. We argue that SEG facilitates semantic exploration by exploring in the space of groups of actions, which have richer semantic meanings than atomic actions. Experiments show that QMIX(SEG) largely outperforms QMIX and leads to strong performance competitive with current state-of-the-art MARL approaches on the StarCraft Multi-Agent Challenge (SMAC) benchmark.

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Shuyue Hu, Chin-Wing Leung, Ho-fung Leung, Harold Soh

Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of reinforcement learning under multi-agent settings has long remained an open problem. While previous works primarily focus on 2-player games, we consider population games, which model the strategic interactions of a large population comprising small and anonymous agents. This paper presents a formal relation between stochastic processes and the dynamics of independent learning agents who reason based on the reward signals. Using a master equation approach, we provide a novel unified framework for characterising population dynamics via a single partial differential equation (Theorem 1). Through a case study involving Cross learning agents, we illustrate that Theorem 1 allows us to identify qualitatively different evolutionary dynamics, to analyse steady states, and to gain insights into the expected behaviour of a population. In addition, we present extensive experimental results validating that Theorem 1 holds for a variety of learning methods and population games.

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