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Abstract:We study convolutional neural networks with monomial activation functions. Specifically, we prove that their parameterization map is regular and is an isomorphism almost everywhere, up to rescaling the filters. By leveraging on tools from algebraic geometry, we explore the geometric properties of the image in function space of this map -- typically referred to as neuromanifold. In particular, we compute the dimension and the degree of the neuromanifold, which measure the expressivity of the model, and describe its singularities. Moreover, for a generic large dataset, we derive an explicit formula that quantifies the number of critical points arising in the optimization of a regression loss.

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Abstract:Relative representations are an established approach to zero-shot model stitching, consisting of a non-trainable transformation of the latent space of a deep neural network. Based on insights of topological and geometric nature, we propose two improvements to relative representations. First, we introduce a normalization procedure in the relative transformation, resulting in invariance to non-isotropic rescalings and permutations. The latter coincides with the symmetries in parameter space induced by common activation functions. Second, we propose to deploy topological densification when fine-tuning relative representations, a topological regularization loss encouraging clustering within classes. We provide an empirical investigation on a natural language task, where both the proposed variations yield improved performance on zero-shot model stitching.

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Abstract:We consider function spaces defined by self-attention networks without normalization, and theoretically analyze their geometry. Since these networks are polynomial, we rely on tools from algebraic geometry. In particular, we study the identifiability of deep attention by providing a description of the generic fibers of the parametrization for an arbitrary number of layers and, as a consequence, compute the dimension of the function space. Additionally, for a single-layer model, we characterize the singular and boundary points. Finally, we formulate a conjectural extension of our results to normalized self-attention networks, prove it for a single layer, and numerically verify it in the deep case.

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Authors:Aniss Aiman Medbouhi, Giovanni Luca Marchetti, Vladislav Polianskii, Alexander Kravberg, Petra Poklukar, Anastasia Varava, Danica Kragic

Abstract:Hyperbolic machine learning is an emerging field aimed at representing data with a hierarchical structure. However, there is a lack of tools for evaluation and analysis of the resulting hyperbolic data representations. To this end, we propose Hyperbolic Delaunay Geometric Alignment (HyperDGA) -- a similarity score for comparing datasets in a hyperbolic space. The core idea is counting the edges of the hyperbolic Delaunay graph connecting datapoints across the given sets. We provide an empirical investigation on synthetic and real-life biological data and demonstrate that HyperDGA outperforms the hyperbolic version of classical distances between sets. Furthermore, we showcase the potential of HyperDGA for evaluating latent representations inferred by a Hyperbolic Variational Auto-Encoder.

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Abstract:In this work, we formally prove that, under certain conditions, if a neural network is invariant to a finite group then its weights recover the Fourier transform on that group. This provides a mathematical explanation for the emergence of Fourier features -- a ubiquitous phenomenon in both biological and artificial learning systems. The results hold even for non-commutative groups, in which case the Fourier transform encodes all the irreducible unitary group representations. Our findings have consequences for the problem of symmetry discovery. Specifically, we demonstrate that the algebraic structure of an unknown group can be recovered from the weights of a network that is at least approximately invariant within certain bounds. Overall, this work contributes to a foundation for an algebraic learning theory of invariant neural network representations.

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Abstract:Lattice reduction is a combinatorial optimization problem aimed at finding the most orthogonal basis in a given lattice. In this work, we address lattice reduction via deep learning methods. We design a deep neural model outputting factorized unimodular matrices and train it in a self-supervised manner by penalizing non-orthogonal lattice bases. We incorporate the symmetries of lattice reduction into the model by making it invariant and equivariant with respect to appropriate continuous and discrete groups.

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Abstract:We address the problem of learning representations from observations of a scene involving an agent and an external object the agent interacts with. To this end, we propose a representation learning framework extracting the location in physical space of both the agent and the object from unstructured observations of arbitrary nature. Our framework relies on the actions performed by the agent as the only source of supervision, while assuming that the object is displaced by the agent via unknown dynamics. We provide a theoretical foundation and formally prove that an ideal learner is guaranteed to infer an isometric representation, disentangling the agent from the object and correctly extracting their locations. We evaluate empirically our framework on a variety of scenarios, showing that it outperforms vision-based approaches such as a state-of-the-art keypoint extractor. We moreover demonstrate how the extracted representations enable the agent to solve downstream tasks via reinforcement learning in an efficient manner.

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Authors:Luis Armando Pérez Rey, Giovanni Luca Marchetti, Danica Kragic, Dmitri Jarnikov, Mike Holenderski

Abstract:We introduce a method for learning representations that are equivariant with respect to general group actions over data. Differently from existing equivariant representation learners, our method is suitable for actions that are not free i.e., that stabilize data via nontrivial symmetries. Our method is grounded in the orbit-stabilizer theorem from group theory, which guarantees that an ideal learner infers an isomorphic representation. Finally, we provide an empirical investigation on image datasets with rotational symmetries and show that taking stabilizers into account improves the quality of the representations.

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Abstract:Learning from previously collected datasets of expert data offers the promise of acquiring robotic policies without unsafe and costly online explorations. However, a major challenge is a distributional shift between the states in the training dataset and the ones visited by the learned policy at the test time. While prior works mainly studied the distribution shift caused by the policy during the offline training, the problem of recovering from out-of-distribution states at the deployment time is not very well studied yet. We alleviate the distributional shift at the deployment time by introducing a recovery policy that brings the agent back to the training manifold whenever it steps out of the in-distribution states, e.g., due to an external perturbation. The recovery policy relies on an approximation of the training data density and a learned equivariant mapping that maps visual observations into a latent space in which translations correspond to the robot actions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method through several manipulation experiments on a real robotic platform. Our results show that the recovery policy enables the agent to complete tasks while the behavioral cloning alone fails because of the distributional shift problem.

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Abstract:We introduce a general method for learning representations that are equivariant to symmetries of data. Our central idea is to decompose the latent space in an invariant factor and the symmetry group itself. The components semantically correspond to intrinsic data classes and poses respectively. The learner is self-supervised and infers these semantics based on relative symmetry information. The approach is motivated by theoretical results from group theory and guarantees representations that are lossless, interpretable and disentangled. We provide an empirical investigation via experiments involving datasets with a variety of symmetries. Results show that our representations capture the geometry of data and outperform other equivariant representation learning frameworks.

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