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Abstract:We study convolutional neural networks with monomial activation functions. Specifically, we prove that their parameterization map is regular and is an isomorphism almost everywhere, up to rescaling the filters. By leveraging on tools from algebraic geometry, we explore the geometric properties of the image in function space of this map -- typically referred to as neuromanifold. In particular, we compute the dimension and the degree of the neuromanifold, which measure the expressivity of the model, and describe its singularities. Moreover, for a generic large dataset, we derive an explicit formula that quantifies the number of critical points arising in the optimization of a regression loss.

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Abstract:We consider function spaces defined by self-attention networks without normalization, and theoretically analyze their geometry. Since these networks are polynomial, we rely on tools from algebraic geometry. In particular, we study the identifiability of deep attention by providing a description of the generic fibers of the parametrization for an arbitrary number of layers and, as a consequence, compute the dimension of the function space. Additionally, for a single-layer model, we characterize the singular and boundary points. Finally, we formulate a conjectural extension of our results to normalized self-attention networks, prove it for a single layer, and numerically verify it in the deep case.

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Abstract:Rolling shutter (RS) cameras dominate consumer and smartphone markets. Several methods for computing the absolute pose of RS cameras have appeared in the last 20 years, but the relative pose problem has not been fully solved yet. We provide a unified theory for the important class of order-one rolling shutter (RS$_1$) cameras. These cameras generalize the perspective projection to RS cameras, projecting a generic space point to exactly one image point via a rational map. We introduce a new back-projection RS camera model, characterize RS$_1$ cameras, construct explicit parameterizations of such cameras, and determine the image of a space line. We classify all minimal problems for solving the relative camera pose problem with linear RS$_1$ cameras and discover new practical cases. Finally, we show how the theory can be used to explain RS models previously used for absolute pose computation.

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Abstract:The set of functions parameterized by a linear fully-connected neural network is a determinantal variety. We investigate the subvariety of functions that are equivariant or invariant under the action of a permutation group. Examples of such group actions are translations or $90^\circ$ rotations on images. For such equivariant or invariant subvarieties, we provide an explicit description of their dimension, their degree as well as their Euclidean distance degree, and their singularities. We fully characterize invariance for arbitrary permutation groups, and equivariance for cyclic groups. We draw conclusions for the parameterization and the design of equivariant and invariant linear networks, such as a weight sharing property, and we prove that all invariant linear functions can be learned by linear autoencoders.

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Abstract:We study the geometry of linear networks with one-dimensional convolutional layers. The function spaces of these networks can be identified with semi-algebraic families of polynomials admitting sparse factorizations. We analyze the impact of the network's architecture on the function space's dimension, boundary, and singular points. We also describe the critical points of the network's parameterization map. Furthermore, we study the optimization problem of training a network with the squared error loss. We prove that for architectures where all strides are larger than one and generic data, the non-zero critical points of that optimization problem are smooth interior points of the function space. This property is known to be false for dense linear networks and linear convolutional networks with stride one.

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Abstract:In this survey article, we present interactions between algebraic geometry and computer vision, which have recently come under the header of Algebraic Vision. The subject has given new insights in multiple view geometry and its application to 3D scene reconstruction, and carried a host of novel problems and ideas back into algebraic geometry.

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Abstract:We study the family of functions that are represented by a linear convolutional neural network (LCN). These functions form a semi-algebraic subset of the set of linear maps from input space to output space. In contrast, the families of functions represented by fully-connected linear networks form algebraic sets. We observe that the functions represented by LCNs can be identified with polynomials that admit certain factorizations, and we use this perspective to describe the impact of the network's architecture on the geometry of the resulting function space. We further study the optimization of an objective function over an LCN, analyzing critical points in function space and in parameter space, and describing dynamical invariants for gradient descent. Overall, our theory predicts that the optimized parameters of an LCN will often correspond to repeated filters across layers, or filters that can be decomposed as repeated filters. We also conduct numerical and symbolic experiments that illustrate our results and present an in-depth analysis of the landscape for small architectures.

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Abstract:We present a complete classification of minimal problems for generic arrangements of points and lines in space observed partially by three calibrated perspective cameras when each line is incident to at most one point. This is a large class of interesting minimal problems that allows missing observations in images due to occlusions and missed detections. There is an infinite number of such minimal problems; however, we show that they can be reduced to 140616 equivalence classes by removing superfluous features and relabeling the cameras. We also introduce camera-minimal problems, which are practical for designing minimal solvers, and show how to pick a simplest camera-minimal problem for each minimal problem. This simplification results in 74575 equivalence classes. Only 76 of these were known; the rest are new. In order to identify problems that have potential for practical solving of image matching and 3D reconstruction, we present several smaller natural subfamilies of camera-minimal problems as well as compute solution counts for all camera-minimal problems which have less than 300 solutions for generic data.

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Abstract:The critical locus of the loss function of a neural network is determined by the geometry of the functional space and by the parameterization of this space by the network's weights. We introduce a natural distinction between pure critical points, which only depend on the functional space, and spurious critical points, which arise from the parameterization. We apply this perspective to revisit and extend the literature on the loss function of linear neural networks. For this type of network, the functional space is either the set of all linear maps from input to output space, or a determinantal variety, i.e., a set of linear maps with bounded rank. We use geometric properties of determinantal varieties to derive new results on the landscape of linear networks with different loss functions and different parameterizations.

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Abstract:We present a complete classification of all minimal problems for generic arrangements of points and lines completely observed by calibrated perspective cameras. We show that there are only 30 minimal problems in total, no problems exist for more than 6 cameras, for more than 5 points, and for more than 6 lines. We present a sequence of tests for detecting minimality starting with counting degrees of freedom and ending with full symbolic and numeric verification of representative examples. For all minimal problems discovered, we present their algebraic degrees, i.e. the number of solutions, which measure their intrinsic difficulty. Our classification shows that there are many interesting new minimal problems. Our results also show how exactly the difficulty of problems grows with the number of views. Importantly, we discovered several new minimal problems with small degrees that might be practical in image matching and 3D reconstruction.

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