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Davide Scaramuzza

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Contrastive Learning for Enhancing Robust Scene Transfer in Vision-based Agile Flight

Sep 29, 2023
Jiaxu Xing, Leonard Bauersfeld, Yunlong Song, Chunwei Xing, Davide Scaramuzza

Scene transfer for vision-based mobile robotics applications is a highly relevant and challenging problem. The utility of a robot greatly depends on its ability to perform a task in the real world, outside of a well-controlled lab environment. Existing scene transfer end-to-end policy learning approaches often suffer from poor sample efficiency or limited generalization capabilities, making them unsuitable for mobile robotics applications. This work proposes an adaptive multi-pair contrastive learning strategy for visual representation learning that enables zero-shot scene transfer and real-world deployment. Control policies relying on the embedding are able to operate in unseen environments without the need for finetuning in the deployment environment. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on the task of agile, vision-based quadrotor flight. Extensive simulation and real-world experiments demonstrate that our approach successfully generalizes beyond the training domain and outperforms all baselines.

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A 5-Point Minimal Solver for Event Camera Relative Motion Estimation

Sep 29, 2023
Ling Gao, Hang Su, Daniel Gehrig, Marco Cannici, Davide Scaramuzza, Laurent Kneip

Event-based cameras are ideal for line-based motion estimation, since they predominantly respond to edges in the scene. However, accurately determining the camera displacement based on events continues to be an open problem. This is because line feature extraction and dynamics estimation are tightly coupled when using event cameras, and no precise model is currently available for describing the complex structures generated by lines in the space-time volume of events. We solve this problem by deriving the correct non-linear parametrization of such manifolds, which we term eventails, and demonstrate its application to event-based linear motion estimation, with known rotation from an Inertial Measurement Unit. Using this parametrization, we introduce a novel minimal 5-point solver that jointly estimates line parameters and linear camera velocity projections, which can be fused into a single, averaged linear velocity when considering multiple lines. We demonstrate on both synthetic and real data that our solver generates more stable relative motion estimates than other methods while capturing more inliers than clustering based on spatio-temporal planes. In particular, our method consistently achieves a 100% success rate in estimating linear velocity where existing closed-form solvers only achieve between 23% and 70%. The proposed eventails contribute to a better understanding of spatio-temporal event-generated geometries and we thus believe it will become a core building block of future event-based motion estimation algorithms.

* IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2023  
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Learning to Walk and Fly with Adversarial Motion Priors

Sep 22, 2023
Giuseppe L'Erario, Drew Hanover, Angel Romero, Yunlong Song, Gabriele Nava, Paolo Maria Viceconte, Daniele Pucci, Davide Scaramuzza

Robot multimodal locomotion encompasses the ability to transition between walking and flying, representing a significant challenge in robotics. This work presents an approach that enables automatic smooth transitions between legged and aerial locomotion. Leveraging the concept of Adversarial Motion Priors, our method allows the robot to imitate motion datasets and accomplish the desired task without the need for complex reward functions. The robot learns walking patterns from human-like gaits and aerial locomotion patterns from motions obtained using trajectory optimization. Through this process, the robot adapts the locomotion scheme based on environmental feedback using reinforcement learning, with the spontaneous emergence of mode-switching behavior. The results highlight the potential for achieving multimodal locomotion in aerial humanoid robotics through automatic control of walking and flying modes, paving the way for applications in diverse domains such as search and rescue, surveillance, and exploration missions. This research contributes to advancing the capabilities of aerial humanoid robots in terms of versatile locomotion in various environments.

* 6 pages, 8 figures, submitted to ICRA 2024 
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Contrastive Initial State Buffer for Reinforcement Learning

Sep 20, 2023
Nico Messikommer, Yunlong Song, Davide Scaramuzza

In Reinforcement Learning, the trade-off between exploration and exploitation poses a complex challenge for achieving efficient learning from limited samples. While recent works have been effective in leveraging past experiences for policy updates, they often overlook the potential of reusing past experiences for data collection. Independent of the underlying RL algorithm, we introduce the concept of a Contrastive Initial State Buffer, which strategically selects states from past experiences and uses them to initialize the agent in the environment in order to guide it toward more informative states. We validate our approach on two complex robotic tasks without relying on any prior information about the environment: (i) locomotion of a quadruped robot traversing challenging terrains and (ii) a quadcopter drone racing through a track. The experimental results show that our initial state buffer achieves higher task performance than the nominal baseline while also speeding up training convergence.

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End-to-End Learned Event- and Image-based Visual Odometry

Sep 18, 2023
Roberto Pellerito, Marco Cannici, Daniel Gehrig, Joris Belhadj, Olivier Dubois-Matra, Massimo Casasco, Davide Scaramuzza

Visual Odometry (VO) is crucial for autonomous robotic navigation, especially in GPS-denied environments like planetary terrains. While standard RGB cameras struggle in low-light or high-speed motion, event-based cameras offer high dynamic range and low latency. However, seamlessly integrating asynchronous event data with synchronous frames remains challenging. We introduce RAMP-VO, the first end-to-end learned event- and image-based VO system. It leverages novel Recurrent, Asynchronous, and Massively Parallel (RAMP) encoders that are 8x faster and 20% more accurate than existing asynchronous encoders. RAMP-VO further employs a novel pose forecasting technique to predict future poses for initialization. Despite being trained only in simulation, RAMP-VO outperforms image- and event-based methods by 52% and 20%, respectively, on traditional, real-world benchmarks as well as newly introduced Apollo and Malapert landing sequences, paving the way for robust and asynchronous VO in space.

* 7 pages, 5 figures 
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Seeing Behind Dynamic Occlusions with Event Cameras

Aug 01, 2023
Rong Zou, Manasi Muglikar, Nico Messikommer, Davide Scaramuzza

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Unwanted camera occlusions, such as debris, dust, rain-drops, and snow, can severely degrade the performance of computer-vision systems. Dynamic occlusions are particularly challenging because of the continuously changing pattern. Existing occlusion-removal methods currently use synthetic aperture imaging or image inpainting. However, they face issues with dynamic occlusions as these require multiple viewpoints or user-generated masks to hallucinate the background intensity. We propose a novel approach to reconstruct the background from a single viewpoint in the presence of dynamic occlusions. Our solution relies for the first time on the combination of a traditional camera with an event camera. When an occlusion moves across a background image, it causes intensity changes that trigger events. These events provide additional information on the relative intensity changes between foreground and background at a high temporal resolution, enabling a truer reconstruction of the background content. We present the first large-scale dataset consisting of synchronized images and event sequences to evaluate our approach. We show that our method outperforms image inpainting methods by 3dB in terms of PSNR on our dataset.

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Agilicious: Open-Source and Open-Hardware Agile Quadrotor for Vision-Based Flight

Jul 12, 2023
Philipp Foehn, Elia Kaufmann, Angel Romero, Robert Penicka, Sihao Sun, Leonard Bauersfeld, Thomas Laengle, Giovanni Cioffi, Yunlong Song, Antonio Loquercio, Davide Scaramuzza

Autonomous, agile quadrotor flight raises fundamental challenges for robotics research in terms of perception, planning, learning, and control. A versatile and standardized platform is needed to accelerate research and let practitioners focus on the core problems. To this end, we present Agilicious, a co-designed hardware and software framework tailored to autonomous, agile quadrotor flight. It is completely open-source and open-hardware and supports both model-based and neural-network--based controllers. Also, it provides high thrust-to-weight and torque-to-inertia ratios for agility, onboard vision sensors, GPU-accelerated compute hardware for real-time perception and neural-network inference, a real-time flight controller, and a versatile software stack. In contrast to existing frameworks, Agilicious offers a unique combination of flexible software stack and high-performance hardware. We compare Agilicious with prior works and demonstrate it on different agile tasks, using both model-based and neural-network--based controllers. Our demonstrators include trajectory tracking at up to 5g and 70 km/h in a motion-capture system, and vision-based acrobatic flight and obstacle avoidance in both structured and unstructured environments using solely onboard perception. Finally, we demonstrate its use for hardware-in-the-loop simulation in virtual-reality environments. Thanks to its versatility, we believe that Agilicious supports the next generation of scientific and industrial quadrotor research.

* Science Robotics Vol. 7, Issue 67, 2022  
* 14 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables 
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HDVIO: Improving Localization and Disturbance Estimation with Hybrid Dynamics VIO

Jun 28, 2023
Giovanni Cioffi, Leonard Bauersfeld, Davide Scaramuzza

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Visual-inertial odometry (VIO) is the most common approach for estimating the state of autonomous micro aerial vehicles using only onboard sensors. Existing methods improve VIO performance by including a dynamics model in the estimation pipeline. However, such methods degrade in the presence of low-fidelity vehicle models and continuous external disturbances, such as wind. Our proposed method, HDVIO, overcomes these limitations by using a hybrid dynamics model that combines a point-mass vehicle model with a learning-based component that captures complex aerodynamic effects. HDVIO estimates the external force and the full robot state by leveraging the discrepancy between the actual motion and the predicted motion of the hybrid dynamics model. Our hybrid dynamics model uses a history of thrust and IMU measurements to predict the vehicle dynamics. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we present results on both public and novel drone dynamics datasets and show real-world experiments of a quadrotor flying in strong winds up to 25 km/h. The results show that our approach improves the motion and external force estimation compared to the state-of-the-art by up to 33% and 40%, respectively. Furthermore, differently from existing methods, we show that it is possible to predict the vehicle dynamics accurately while having no explicit knowledge of its full state.

* Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS) 2023  
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