Recently, the strong text creation ability of Large Language Models(LLMs) has given rise to many tools for assisting paper reading or even writing. However, the weak diagram analysis abilities of LLMs or Multimodal LLMs greatly limit their application scenarios, especially for scientific academic paper writing. In this work, towards a more versatile copilot for academic paper writing, we mainly focus on strengthening the multi-modal diagram analysis ability of Multimodal LLMs. By parsing Latex source files of high-quality papers, we carefully build a multi-modal diagram understanding dataset M-Paper. By aligning diagrams in the paper with related paragraphs, we construct professional diagram analysis samples for training and evaluation. M-Paper is the first dataset to support joint comprehension of multiple scientific diagrams, including figures and tables in the format of images or Latex codes. Besides, to better align the copilot with the user's intention, we introduce the `outline' as the control signal, which could be directly given by the user or revised based on auto-generated ones. Comprehensive experiments with a state-of-the-art Mumtimodal LLM demonstrate that training on our dataset shows stronger scientific diagram understanding performance, including diagram captioning, diagram analysis, and outline recommendation. The dataset, code, and model are available at https://github.com/X-PLUG/mPLUG-DocOwl/tree/main/PaperOwl.
* 20 pages, 12 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with
arXiv:2305.15225 by other authors
Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have demonstrated impressive instruction abilities across various open-ended tasks. However, previous methods primarily focus on enhancing multi-modal capabilities. In this work, we introduce a versatile multi-modal large language model, mPLUG-Owl2, which effectively leverages modality collaboration to improve performance in both text and multi-modal tasks. mPLUG-Owl2 utilizes a modularized network design, with the language decoder acting as a universal interface for managing different modalities. Specifically, mPLUG-Owl2 incorporates shared functional modules to facilitate modality collaboration and introduces a modality-adaptive module that preserves modality-specific features. Extensive experiments reveal that mPLUG-Owl2 is capable of generalizing both text tasks and multi-modal tasks and achieving state-of-the-art performances with a single generic model. Notably, mPLUG-Owl2 is the first MLLM model that demonstrates the modality collaboration phenomenon in both pure-text and multi-modal scenarios, setting a pioneering path in the development of future multi-modal foundation models.
Text is ubiquitous in our visual world, conveying crucial information, such as in documents, websites, and everyday photographs. In this work, we propose UReader, a first exploration of universal OCR-free visually-situated language understanding based on the Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM). By leveraging the shallow text recognition ability of the MLLM, we only finetuned 1.2% parameters and the training cost is much lower than previous work following domain-specific pretraining and finetuning paradigms. Concretely, UReader is jointly finetuned on a wide range of Visually-situated Language Understanding tasks via a unified instruction format. To enhance the visual text and semantic understanding, we further apply two auxiliary tasks with the same format, namely text reading and key points generation tasks. We design a shape-adaptive cropping module before the encoder-decoder architecture of MLLM to leverage the frozen low-resolution vision encoder for processing high-resolution images. Without downstream finetuning, our single model achieves state-of-the-art ocr-free performance in 8 out of 10 visually-situated language understanding tasks, across 5 domains: documents, tables, charts, natural images, and webpage screenshots. Codes and instruction-tuning datasets will be released.
While current visual captioning models have achieved impressive performance, they often assume that the image is well-captured and provides a complete view of the scene. In real-world scenarios, however, a single image may not offer a good viewpoint, hindering fine-grained scene understanding. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel task called Embodied Captioning, which equips visual captioning models with navigation capabilities, enabling them to actively explore the scene and reduce visual ambiguity from suboptimal viewpoints. Specifically, starting at a random viewpoint, an agent must navigate the environment to gather information from different viewpoints and generate a comprehensive paragraph describing all objects in the scene. To support this task, we build the ET-Cap dataset with Kubric simulator, consisting of 10K 3D scenes with cluttered objects and three annotated paragraphs per scene. We propose a Cascade Embodied Captioning model (CaBOT), which comprises of a navigator and a captioner, to tackle this task. The navigator predicts which actions to take in the environment, while the captioner generates a paragraph description based on the whole navigation trajectory. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our model outperforms other carefully designed baselines. Our dataset, codes and models are available at https://aim3-ruc.github.io/ExploreAndTell.
Document understanding refers to automatically extract, analyze and comprehend information from various types of digital documents, such as a web page. Existing Multi-model Large Language Models (MLLMs), including mPLUG-Owl, have demonstrated promising zero-shot capabilities in shallow OCR-free text recognition, indicating their potential for OCR-free document understanding. Nevertheless, without in-domain training, these models tend to ignore fine-grained OCR features, such as sophisticated tables or large blocks of text, which are essential for OCR-free document understanding. In this paper, we propose mPLUG-DocOwl based on mPLUG-Owl for OCR-free document understanding. Specifically, we first construct a instruction tuning dataset featuring a wide range of visual-text understanding tasks. Then, we strengthen the OCR-free document understanding ability by jointly train the model on language-only, general vision-and-language, and document instruction tuning dataset with our unified instruction tuning strategy. We also build an OCR-free document instruction understanding evaluation set LLMDoc to better compare models' capabilities on instruct compliance and document understanding. Experimental results show that our model outperforms existing multi-modal models, demonstrating its strong ability of document understanding. Besides, without specific fine-tuning, mPLUG-DocOwl generalizes well on various downstream tasks. Our code, models, training data and evaluation set are available at https://github.com/X-PLUG/mPLUG-DocOwl.
Image captioning aims to describe visual content in natural language. As 'a picture is worth a thousand words', there could be various correct descriptions for an image. However, with maximum likelihood estimation as the training objective, the captioning model is penalized whenever its prediction mismatches with the label. For instance, when the model predicts a word expressing richer semantics than the label, it will be penalized and optimized to prefer more concise expressions, referred to as conciseness optimization. In contrast, predictions that are more concise than labels lead to richness optimization. Such conflicting optimization directions could eventually result in the model generating general descriptions. In this work, we introduce Semipermeable MaxImum Likelihood Estimation (SMILE), which allows richness optimization while blocking conciseness optimization, thus encouraging the model to generate longer captions with more details. Extensive experiments on two mainstream image captioning datasets MSCOCO and Flickr30K demonstrate that SMILE significantly enhances the descriptiveness of generated captions. We further provide in-depth investigations to facilitate a better understanding of how SMILE works.
To promote the development of Vision-Language Pre-training (VLP) and multimodal Large Language Model (LLM) in the Chinese community, we firstly release the largest public Chinese high-quality video-language dataset named Youku-mPLUG, which is collected from Youku, a well-known Chinese video-sharing website, with strict criteria of safety, diversity, and quality. Youku-mPLUG contains 10 million Chinese video-text pairs filtered from 400 million raw videos across a wide range of 45 diverse categories for large-scale pre-training. In addition, to facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of video-language models, we carefully build the largest human-annotated Chinese benchmarks covering three popular video-language tasks of cross-modal retrieval, video captioning, and video category classification. Youku-mPLUG can enable researchers to conduct more in-depth multimodal research and develop better applications in the future. Furthermore, we release popular video-language pre-training models, ALPRO and mPLUG-2, and our proposed modularized decoder-only model mPLUG-video pre-trained on Youku-mPLUG. Experiments show that models pre-trained on Youku-mPLUG gain up to 23.1% improvement in video category classification. Besides, mPLUG-video achieves a new state-of-the-art result on these benchmarks with 80.5% top-1 accuracy in video category classification and 68.9 CIDEr score in video captioning, respectively. Finally, we scale up mPLUG-video based on the frozen Bloomz with only 1.7% trainable parameters as Chinese multimodal LLM, and demonstrate impressive instruction and video understanding ability. The zero-shot instruction understanding experiment indicates that pretraining with Youku-mPLUG can enhance the ability to comprehend overall and detailed visual semantics, recognize scene text, and leverage open-domain knowledge.
To help the visually impaired enjoy movies, automatic movie narrating systems are expected to narrate accurate, coherent, and role-aware plots when there are no speaking lines of actors. Existing works benchmark this challenge as a normal video captioning task via some simplifications, such as removing role names and evaluating narrations with ngram-based metrics, which makes it difficult for automatic systems to meet the needs of real application scenarios. To narrow this gap, we construct a large-scale Chinese movie benchmark, named Movie101. Closer to real scenarios, the Movie Clip Narrating (MCN) task in our benchmark asks models to generate role-aware narration paragraphs for complete movie clips where no actors are speaking. External knowledge, such as role information and movie genres, is also provided for better movie understanding. Besides, we propose a new metric called Movie Narration Score (MNScore) for movie narrating evaluation, which achieves the best correlation with human evaluation. Our benchmark also supports the Temporal Narration Grounding (TNG) task to investigate clip localization given text descriptions. For both two tasks, our proposed methods well leverage external knowledge and outperform carefully designed baselines. The dataset and codes are released at https://github.com/yuezih/Movie101.
Automatic image captioning evaluation is critical for benchmarking and promoting advances in image captioning research. Existing metrics only provide a single score to measure caption qualities, which are less explainable and informative. Instead, we humans can easily identify the problems of captions in details, e.g., which words are inaccurate and which salient objects are not described, and then rate the caption quality. To support such informative feedback, we propose an Informative Metric for Reference-free Image Caption evaluation (InfoMetIC). Given an image and a caption, InfoMetIC is able to report incorrect words and unmentioned image regions at fine-grained level, and also provide a text precision score, a vision recall score and an overall quality score at coarse-grained level. The coarse-grained score of InfoMetIC achieves significantly better correlation with human judgements than existing metrics on multiple benchmarks. We also construct a token-level evaluation dataset and demonstrate the effectiveness of InfoMetIC in fine-grained evaluation. Our code and datasets are publicly available at https://github.com/HAWLYQ/InfoMetIC.