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"speech recognition": models, code, and papers

Speaker Adaptation Using Spectro-Temporal Deep Features for Dysarthric and Elderly Speech Recognition

Mar 17, 2022
Mengzhe Geng, Xurong Xie, Zi Ye, Tianzi Wang, Guinan Li, Shujie Hu, Xunying Liu, Helen Meng

Despite the rapid progress of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technologies targeting normal speech in recent decades, accurate recognition of dysarthric and elderly speech remains highly challenging tasks to date. Sources of heterogeneity commonly found in normal speech including accent or gender, when further compounded with the variability over age and speech pathology severity level, create large diversity among speakers. To this end, speaker adaptation techniques play a key role in personalization of ASR systems for such users. Motivated by the spectro-temporal level differences between dysarthric, elderly and normal speech that systematically manifest in articulatory imprecision, decreased volume and clarity, slower speaking rates and increased dysfluencies, novel spectrotemporal subspace basis deep embedding features derived using SVD speech spectrum decomposition are proposed in this paper to facilitate auxiliary feature based speaker adaptation of state-of-the-art hybrid DNN/TDNN and end-to-end Conformer speech recognition systems. Experiments were conducted on four tasks: the English UASpeech and TORGO dysarthric speech corpora; the English DementiaBank Pitt and Cantonese JCCOCC MoCA elderly speech datasets. The proposed spectro-temporal deep feature adapted systems outperformed baseline i-Vector and xVector adaptation by up to 2.63% absolute (8.63% relative) reduction in word error rate (WER). Consistent performance improvements were retained after model based speaker adaptation using learning hidden unit contributions (LHUC) was further applied. The best speaker adapted system using the proposed spectral basis embedding features produced the lowest published WER of 25.05% on the UASpeech test set of 16 dysarthric speakers.

* In submission to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio Speech and Language Processing 
  

BridgeNets: Student-Teacher Transfer Learning Based on Recursive Neural Networks and its Application to Distant Speech Recognition

Feb 21, 2018
Jaeyoung Kim, Mostafa El-Khamy, Jungwon Lee

Despite the remarkable progress achieved on automatic speech recognition, recognizing far-field speeches mixed with various noise sources is still a challenging task. In this paper, we introduce novel student-teacher transfer learning, BridgeNet which can provide a solution to improve distant speech recognition. There are two key features in BridgeNet. First, BridgeNet extends traditional student-teacher frameworks by providing multiple hints from a teacher network. Hints are not limited to the soft labels from a teacher network. Teacher's intermediate feature representations can better guide a student network to learn how to denoise or dereverberate noisy input. Second, the proposed recursive architecture in the BridgeNet can iteratively improve denoising and recognition performance. The experimental results of BridgeNet showed significant improvements in tackling the distant speech recognition problem, where it achieved up to 13.24% relative WER reductions on AMI corpus compared to a baseline neural network without teacher's hints.

* Accepted to 2018 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2018) 
  

Separator-Transducer-Segmenter: Streaming Recognition and Segmentation of Multi-party Speech

May 10, 2022
Ilya Sklyar, Anna Piunova, Christian Osendorfer

Streaming recognition and segmentation of multi-party conversations with overlapping speech is crucial for the next generation of voice assistant applications. In this work we address its challenges discovered in the previous work on multi-turn recurrent neural network transducer (MT-RNN-T) with a novel approach, separator-transducer-segmenter (STS), that enables tighter integration of speech separation, recognition and segmentation in a single model. First, we propose a new segmentation modeling strategy through start-of-turn and end-of-turn tokens that improves segmentation without recognition accuracy degradation. Second, we further improve both speech recognition and segmentation accuracy through an emission regularization method, FastEmit, and multi-task training with speech activity information as an additional training signal. Third, we experiment with end-of-turn emission latency penalty to improve end-point detection for each speaker turn. Finally, we establish a novel framework for segmentation analysis of multi-party conversations through emission latency metrics. With our best model, we report 4.6% abs. turn counting accuracy improvement and 17% rel. word error rate (WER) improvement on LibriCSS dataset compared to the previously published work.

* Submitted to InterSpeech 2022 
  

A comparable study of modeling units for end-to-end Mandarin speech recognition

May 14, 2018
Wei Zou, Dongwei Jiang, Shuaijiang Zhao, Xiangang Li

End-To-End speech recognition have become increasingly popular in mandarin speech recognition and achieved delightful performance. Mandarin is a tonal language which is different from English and requires special treatment for the acoustic modeling units. There have been several different kinds of modeling units for mandarin such as phoneme, syllable and Chinese character. In this work, we explore two major end-to-end models: connectionist temporal classification (CTC) model and attention based encoder-decoder model for mandarin speech recognition. We compare the performance of three different scaled modeling units: context dependent phoneme(CDP), syllable with tone and Chinese character. We find that all types of modeling units can achieve approximate character error rate (CER) in CTC model and the performance of Chinese character attention model is better than syllable attention model. Furthermore, we find that Chinese character is a reasonable unit for mandarin speech recognition. On DidiCallcenter task, Chinese character attention model achieves a CER of 5.68% and CTC model gets a CER of 7.29%, on the other DidiReading task, CER are 4.89% and 5.79%, respectively. Moreover, attention model achieves a better performance than CTC model on both datasets.

* 5 pages 
  

Toward Cross-Domain Speech Recognition with End-to-End Models

Mar 09, 2020
Thai-Son Nguyen, Sebastian Stüker, Alex Waibel

In the area of multi-domain speech recognition, research in the past focused on hybrid acoustic models to build cross-domain and domain-invariant speech recognition systems. In this paper, we empirically examine the difference in behavior between hybrid acoustic models and neural end-to-end systems when mixing acoustic training data from several domains. For these experiments we composed a multi-domain dataset from public sources, with the different domains in the corpus covering a wide variety of topics and acoustic conditions such as telephone conversations, lectures, read speech and broadcast news. We show that for the hybrid models, supplying additional training data from other domains with mismatched acoustic conditions does not increase the performance on specific domains. However, our end-to-end models optimized with sequence-based criterion generalize better than the hybrid models on diverse domains. In term of word-error-rate performance, our experimental acoustic-to-word and attention-based models trained on multi-domain dataset reach the performance of domain-specific long short-term memory (LSTM) hybrid models, thus resulting in multi-domain speech recognition systems that do not suffer in performance over domain specific ones. Moreover, the use of neural end-to-end models eliminates the need of domain-adapted language models during recognition, which is a great advantage when the input domain is unknown.

* Presented in Life-Long Learning for Spoken Language Systems Workshop - ASRU 2019 
  

Introduction to Arabic Speech Recognition Using CMUSphinx System

Apr 17, 2007
H. Satori, M. Harti, N. Chenfour

In this paper Arabic was investigated from the speech recognition problem point of view. We propose a novel approach to build an Arabic Automated Speech Recognition System (ASR). This system is based on the open source CMU Sphinx-4, from the Carnegie Mellon University. CMU Sphinx is a large-vocabulary; speaker-independent, continuous speech recognition system based on discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). We build a model using utilities from the OpenSource CMU Sphinx. We will demonstrate the possible adaptability of this system to Arabic voice recognition.

* 4 pages, 3 figures and 2 tables, was in Information and Communication Technologies International Symposium proceeding ICTIS07 Fes (2007) 
  

Cross-lingual Self-Supervised Speech Representations for Improved Dysarthric Speech Recognition

Apr 04, 2022
Abner Hernandez, Paula Andrea Pérez-Toro, Elmar Nöth, Juan Rafael Orozco-Arroyave, Andreas Maier, Seung Hee Yang

State-of-the-art automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems perform well on healthy speech. However, the performance on impaired speech still remains an issue. The current study explores the usefulness of using Wav2Vec self-supervised speech representations as features for training an ASR system for dysarthric speech. Dysarthric speech recognition is particularly difficult as several aspects of speech such as articulation, prosody and phonation can be impaired. Specifically, we train an acoustic model with features extracted from Wav2Vec, Hubert, and the cross-lingual XLSR model. Results suggest that speech representations pretrained on large unlabelled data can improve word error rate (WER) performance. In particular, features from the multilingual model led to lower WERs than filterbanks (Fbank) or models trained on a single language. Improvements were observed in English speakers with cerebral palsy caused dysarthria (UASpeech corpus), Spanish speakers with Parkinsonian dysarthria (PC-GITA corpus) and Italian speakers with paralysis-based dysarthria (EasyCall corpus). Compared to using Fbank features, XLSR-based features reduced WERs by 6.8%, 22.0%, and 7.0% for the UASpeech, PC-GITA, and EasyCall corpus, respectively.

* Submitted for review at Interspeech 2022 
  

Streaming end-to-end speech recognition with jointly trained neural feature enhancement

May 04, 2021
Chanwoo Kim, Abhinav Garg, Dhananjaya Gowda, Seongkyu Mun, Changwoo Han

In this paper, we present a streaming end-to-end speech recognition model based on Monotonic Chunkwise Attention (MoCha) jointly trained with enhancement layers. Even though the MoCha attention enables streaming speech recognition with recognition accuracy comparable to a full attention-based approach, training this model is sensitive to various factors such as the difficulty of training examples, hyper-parameters, and so on. Because of these issues, speech recognition accuracy of a MoCha-based model for clean speech drops significantly when a multi-style training approach is applied. Inspired by Curriculum Learning [1], we introduce two training strategies: Gradual Application of Enhanced Features (GAEF) and Gradual Reduction of Enhanced Loss (GREL). With GAEF, the model is initially trained using clean features. Subsequently, the portion of outputs from the enhancement layers gradually increases. With GREL, the portion of the Mean Squared Error (MSE) loss for the enhanced output gradually reduces as training proceeds. In experimental results on the LibriSpeech corpus and noisy far-field test sets, the proposed model with GAEF-GREL training strategies shows significantly better results than the conventional multi-style training approach.

* Accepted to ICASSP 2021 
  
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