With the growing amount of musical data available, automatic instrument recognition, one of the essential problems in Music Information Retrieval (MIR), is drawing more and more attention. While automatic recognition of single instruments has been well-studied, it remains challenging for polyphonic, multi-instrument musical recordings. This work presents our efforts toward building a robust end-to-end instrument recognition system for polyphonic multi-instrument music. We train our model using a pre-training and fine-tuning approach: we use a large amount of monophonic musical data for pre-training and subsequently fine-tune the model for the polyphonic ensemble. In pre-training, we apply data augmentation techniques to alleviate the domain gap between monophonic musical data and real-world music. We evaluate our method on the IRMAS testing data, a polyphonic musical dataset comprising professionally-produced commercial music recordings. Experimental results show that our best model achieves a micro F1-score of 0.674 and an LRAP of 0.814, meaning 10.9% and 8.9% relative improvement compared with the previous state-of-the-art end-to-end approach. Also, we are able to build a lightweight model, achieving competitive performance with only 519K trainable parameters.
Low resource speech recognition has been long-suffering from insufficient training data. While neighbour languages are often used as assistant training data, it would be difficult for the model to induct similar units (character, subword, etc.) across the languages. In this paper, we assume similar units in neighbour language share similar term frequency and form a Huffman tree to perform multi-lingual hierarchical Softmax decoding. During decoding, the hierarchical structure can benefit the training of low-resource languages. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method.
Recent neural networks such as WaveNet and sampleRNN that learn directly from speech waveform samples have achieved very high-quality synthetic speech in terms of both naturalness and speaker similarity even in multi-speaker text-to-speech synthesis systems. Such neural networks are being used as an alternative to vocoders and hence they are often called neural vocoders. The neural vocoder uses acoustic features as local condition parameters, and these parameters need to be accurately predicted by another acoustic model. However, it is not yet clear how to train this acoustic model, which is problematic because the final quality of synthetic speech is significantly affected by the performance of the acoustic model. Significant degradation happens, especially when predicted acoustic features have mismatched characteristics compared to natural ones. In order to reduce the mismatched characteristics between natural and generated acoustic features, we propose frameworks that incorporate either a conditional generative adversarial network (GAN) or its variant, Wasserstein GAN with gradient penalty (WGAN-GP), into multi-speaker speech synthesis that uses the WaveNet vocoder. We also extend the GAN frameworks and use the discretized mixture logistic loss of a well-trained WaveNet in addition to mean squared error and adversarial losses as parts of objective functions. Experimental results show that acoustic models trained using the WGAN-GP framework using back-propagated discretized-mixture-of-logistics (DML) loss achieves the highest subjective evaluation scores in terms of both quality and speaker similarity.