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"photo style transfer": models, code, and papers

High-Resolution Network for Photorealistic Style Transfer

Apr 25, 2019
Ming Li, Chunyang Ye, Wei Li

Photorealistic style transfer aims to transfer the style of one image to another, but preserves the original structure and detail outline of the content image, which makes the content image still look like a real shot after the style transfer. Although some realistic image styling methods have been proposed, these methods are vulnerable to lose the details of the content image and produce some irregular distortion structures. In this paper, we use a high-resolution network as the image generation network. Compared to other methods, which reduce the resolution and then restore the high resolution, our generation network maintains high resolution throughout the process. By connecting high-resolution subnets to low-resolution subnets in parallel and repeatedly multi-scale fusion, high-resolution subnets can continuously receive information from low-resolution subnets. This allows our network to discard less information contained in the image, so the generated images may have a more elaborate structure and less distortion, which is crucial to the visual quality. We conducted extensive experiments and compared the results with existing methods. The experimental results show that our model is effective and produces better results than existing methods for photorealistic image stylization. Our source code with PyTorch framework will be publicly available at

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3D Photo Stylization: Learning to Generate Stylized Novel Views from a Single Image

Dec 04, 2021
Fangzhou Mu, Jian Wang, Yicheng Wu, Yin Li

Visual content creation has spurred a soaring interest given its applications in mobile photography and AR / VR. Style transfer and single-image 3D photography as two representative tasks have so far evolved independently. In this paper, we make a connection between the two, and address the challenging task of 3D photo stylization - generating stylized novel views from a single image given an arbitrary style. Our key intuition is that style transfer and view synthesis have to be jointly modeled for this task. To this end, we propose a deep model that learns geometry-aware content features for stylization from a point cloud representation of the scene, resulting in high-quality stylized images that are consistent across views. Further, we introduce a novel training protocol to enable the learning using only 2D images. We demonstrate the superiority of our method via extensive qualitative and quantitative studies, and showcase key applications of our method in light of the growing demand for 3D content creation from 2D image assets.

* Project page: 
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StyleNAS: An Empirical Study of Neural Architecture Search to Uncover Surprisingly Fast End-to-End Universal Style Transfer Networks

Jun 06, 2019
Jie An, Haoyi Xiong, Jinwen Ma, Jiebo Luo, Jun Huan

Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has been widely studied for designing discriminative deep learning models such as image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation. As a large number of priors have been obtained through the manual design of architectures in the fields, NAS is usually considered as a supplement approach. In this paper, we have significantly expanded the application areas of NAS by performing an empirical study of NAS to search generative models, or specifically, auto-encoder based universal style transfer, which lacks systematic exploration, if any, from the architecture search aspect. In our work, we first designed a search space where common operators for image style transfer such as VGG-based encoders, whitening and coloring transforms (WCT), convolution kernels, instance normalization operators, and skip connections were searched in a combinatorial approach. With a simple yet effective parallel evolutionary NAS algorithm with multiple objectives, we derived the first group of end-to-end deep networks for universal photorealistic style transfer. Comparing to random search, a NAS method that is gaining popularity recently, we demonstrated that carefully designed search strategy leads to much better architecture design. Finally compared to existing universal style transfer networks for photorealistic rendering such as PhotoWCT that stacks multiple well-trained auto-encoders and WCT transforms in a non-end-to-end manner, the architectures designed by StyleNAS produce better style-transferred images with details preserving, using a tiny number of operators/parameters, and enjoying around 500x inference time speed-up.

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Generating Embroidery Patterns Using Image-to-Image Translation

Mar 05, 2020
Mohammad Akif Beg, Jia Yuan Yu

In many scenarios in computer vision, machine learning, and computer graphics, there is a requirement to learn the mapping from an image of one domain to an image of another domain, called Image-to-image translation. For example, style transfer, object transfiguration, visually altering the appearance of weather conditions in an image, changing the appearance of a day image into a night image or vice versa, photo enhancement, to name a few. In this paper, we propose two machine learning techniques to solve the embroidery image-to-image translation. Our goal is to generate a preview image which looks similar to an embroidered image, from a user-uploaded image. Our techniques are modifications of two existing techniques, neural style transfer, and cycle-consistent generative-adversarial network. Neural style transfer renders the semantic content of an image from one domain in the style of a different image in another domain, whereas a cycle-consistent generative adversarial network learns the mapping from an input image to output image without any paired training data, and also learn a loss function to train this mapping. Furthermore, the techniques we propose are independent of any embroidery attributes, such as elevation of the image, light-source, start, and endpoints of a stitch, type of stitch used, fabric type, etc. Given the user image, our techniques can generate a preview image which looks similar to an embroidered image. We train and test our propose techniques on an embroidery dataset which consist of simple 2D images. To do so, we prepare an unpaired embroidery dataset with more than 8000 user-uploaded images along with embroidered images. Empirical results show that these techniques successfully generate an approximate preview of an embroidered version of a user image, which can help users in decision making.

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Evolvement Constrained Adversarial Learning for Video Style Transfer

Nov 06, 2018
Wenbo Li, Longyin Wen, Xiao Bian, Siwei Lyu

Video style transfer is a useful component for applications such as augmented reality, non-photorealistic rendering, and interactive games. Many existing methods use optical flow to preserve the temporal smoothness of the synthesized video. However, the estimation of optical flow is sensitive to occlusions and rapid motions. Thus, in this work, we introduce a novel evolve-sync loss computed by evolvements to replace optical flow. Using this evolve-sync loss, we build an adversarial learning framework, termed as Video Style Transfer Generative Adversarial Network (VST-GAN), which improves upon the MGAN method for image style transfer for more efficient video style transfer. We perform extensive experimental evaluations of our method and show quantitative and qualitative improvements over the state-of-the-art methods.

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Style Transfer for Light Field Photography

Feb 25, 2020
David Hart, Jessica Greenland, Bryan Morse

As light field images continue to increase in use and application, it becomes necessary to adapt existing image processing methods to this unique form of photography. In this paper we explore methods for applying neural style transfer to light field images. Feed-forward style transfer networks provide fast, high-quality results for monocular images, but no such networks exist for full light field images. Because of the size of these images, current light field data sets are small and are insufficient for training purely feed-forward style-transfer networks from scratch. Thus, it is necessary to adapt existing monocular style transfer networks in a way that allows for the stylization of each view of the light field while maintaining visual consistencies between views. Instead, the proposed method backpropagates the loss through the network, and the process is iterated to optimize (essentially overfit) the resulting stylization for a single light field image alone. The network architecture allows for the incorporation of pre-trained fast monocular stylization networks while avoiding the need for a large light field training set.

* To be presented at WACV 2020 
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Real-time Localized Photorealistic Video Style Transfer

Oct 20, 2020
Xide Xia, Tianfan Xue, Wei-sheng Lai, Zheng Sun, Abby Chang, Brian Kulis, Jiawen Chen

We present a novel algorithm for transferring artistic styles of semantically meaningful local regions of an image onto local regions of a target video while preserving its photorealism. Local regions may be selected either fully automatically from an image, through using video segmentation algorithms, or from casual user guidance such as scribbles. Our method, based on a deep neural network architecture inspired by recent work in photorealistic style transfer, is real-time and works on arbitrary inputs without runtime optimization once trained on a diverse dataset of artistic styles. By augmenting our video dataset with noisy semantic labels and jointly optimizing over style, content, mask, and temporal losses, our method can cope with a variety of imperfections in the input and produce temporally coherent videos without visual artifacts. We demonstrate our method on a variety of style images and target videos, including the ability to transfer different styles onto multiple objects simultaneously, and smoothly transition between styles in time.

* 16 pages, 15 figures 
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Photo-realistic Facial Texture Transfer

Jun 14, 2017
Parneet Kaur, Hang Zhang, Kristin J. Dana

Style transfer methods have achieved significant success in recent years with the use of convolutional neural networks. However, many of these methods concentrate on artistic style transfer with few constraints on the output image appearance. We address the challenging problem of transferring face texture from a style face image to a content face image in a photorealistic manner without changing the identity of the original content image. Our framework for face texture transfer (FaceTex) augments the prior work of MRF-CNN with a novel facial semantic regularization that incorporates a face prior regularization smoothly suppressing the changes around facial meso-structures (e.g eyes, nose and mouth) and a facial structure loss function which implicitly preserves the facial structure so that face texture can be transferred without changing the original identity. We demonstrate results on face images and compare our approach with recent state-of-the-art methods. Our results demonstrate superior texture transfer because of the ability to maintain the identity of the original face image.

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Preserving Color in Neural Artistic Style Transfer

Jun 19, 2016
Leon A. Gatys, Matthias Bethge, Aaron Hertzmann, Eli Shechtman

This note presents an extension to the neural artistic style transfer algorithm (Gatys et al.). The original algorithm transforms an image to have the style of another given image. For example, a photograph can be transformed to have the style of a famous painting. Here we address a potential shortcoming of the original method: the algorithm transfers the colors of the original painting, which can alter the appearance of the scene in undesirable ways. We describe simple linear methods for transferring style while preserving colors.

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