Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!

Chrome logo  Add to Chrome

Firefox logo Add to Firefox

"music generation": models, code, and papers

Enhanced Memory Network: The novel network structure for Symbolic Music Generation

Oct 07, 2021
Jin Li, Haibin Liu, Nan Yan, Lan Wang

Symbolic melodies generation is one of the essential tasks for automatic music generation. Recently, models based on neural networks have had a significant influence on generating symbolic melodies. However, the musical context structure is complicated to capture through deep neural networks. Although long short-term memory (LSTM) is attempted to solve this problem through learning order dependence in the musical sequence, it is not capable of capturing musical context with only one note as input for each time step of LSTM. In this paper, we propose a novel Enhanced Memory Network (EMN) with several recurrent units, named Enhanced Memory Unit (EMU), to explicitly modify the internal architecture of LSTM for containing music beat information and reinforces the memory of the latest musical beat through aggregating beat inside the memory gate. In addition, to increase the diversity of generated musical notes, cosine distance among adjacent time steps of hidden states is considered as part of loss functions to avoid a high similarity score that harms the diversity of generated notes. Objective and subjective evaluation results show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance. Code and music demo are available at


MusIAC: An extensible generative framework for Music Infilling Applications with multi-level Control

Feb 11, 2022
Rui Guo, Ivor Simpson, Chris Kiefer, Thor Magnusson, Dorien Herremans

We present a novel music generation framework for music infilling, with a user friendly interface. Infilling refers to the task of generating musical sections given the surrounding multi-track music. The proposed transformer-based framework is extensible for new control tokens as the added music control tokens such as tonal tension per bar and track polyphony level in this work. We explore the effects of including several musically meaningful control tokens, and evaluate the results using objective metrics related to pitch and rhythm. Our results demonstrate that adding additional control tokens helps to generate music with stronger stylistic similarities to the original music. It also provides the user with more control to change properties like the music texture and tonal tension in each bar compared to previous research which only provided control for track density. We present the model in a Google Colab notebook to enable interactive generation.

* preprint for The 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design (EvoMUSART) 2022 

Conditioning Deep Generative Raw Audio Models for Structured Automatic Music

Jun 26, 2018
Rachel Manzelli, Vijay Thakkar, Ali Siahkamari, Brian Kulis

Existing automatic music generation approaches that feature deep learning can be broadly classified into two types: raw audio models and symbolic models. Symbolic models, which train and generate at the note level, are currently the more prevalent approach; these models can capture long-range dependencies of melodic structure, but fail to grasp the nuances and richness of raw audio generations. Raw audio models, such as DeepMind's WaveNet, train directly on sampled audio waveforms, allowing them to produce realistic-sounding, albeit unstructured music. In this paper, we propose an automatic music generation methodology combining both of these approaches to create structured, realistic-sounding compositions. We consider a Long Short Term Memory network to learn the melodic structure of different styles of music, and then use the unique symbolic generations from this model as a conditioning input to a WaveNet-based raw audio generator, creating a model for automatic, novel music. We then evaluate this approach by showcasing results of this work.

* Presented at the ISMIR 2018 Conference 

The Power of Reuse: A Multi-Scale Transformer Model for Structural Dynamic Segmentation in Symbolic Music Generation

May 17, 2022
Guowei Wu, Shipei Liu, Xiaoya Fan

Symbolic Music Generation relies on the contextual representation capabilities of the generative model, where the most prevalent approach is the Transformer-based model. Not only that, the learning of long-term context is also related to the dynamic segmentation of musical structures, i.e. intro, verse and chorus, which is currently overlooked by the research community. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale Transformer, which uses coarse-decoder and fine-decoders to model the contexts at the global and section-level, respectively. Concretely, we designed a Fragment Scope Localization layer to syncopate the music into sections, which were later used to pre-train fine-decoders. After that, we designed a Music Style Normalization layer to transfer the style information from the original sections to the generated sections to achieve consistency in music style. The generated sections are combined in the aggregation layer and fine-tuned by the coarse decoder. Our model is evaluated on two open MIDI datasets, and experiments show that our model outperforms the best contemporary symbolic music generative models. More excitingly, visual evaluation shows that our model is superior in melody reuse, resulting in more realistic music.


Dance2Music: Automatic Dance-driven Music Generation

Jul 20, 2021
Gunjan Aggarwal, Devi Parikh

Dance and music typically go hand in hand. The complexities in dance, music, and their synchronisation make them fascinating to study from a computational creativity perspective. While several works have looked at generating dance for a given music, automatically generating music for a given dance remains under-explored. This capability could have several creative expression and entertainment applications. We present some early explorations in this direction. We present a search-based offline approach that generates music after processing the entire dance video and an online approach that uses a deep neural network to generate music on-the-fly as the video proceeds. We compare these approaches to a strong heuristic baseline via human studies and present our findings. We have integrated our online approach in a live demo! A video of the demo can be found here:


A Classifying Variational Autoencoder with Application to Polyphonic Music Generation

Nov 19, 2017
Jay A. Hennig, Akash Umakantha, Ryan C. Williamson

The variational autoencoder (VAE) is a popular probabilistic generative model. However, one shortcoming of VAEs is that the latent variables cannot be discrete, which makes it difficult to generate data from different modes of a distribution. Here, we propose an extension of the VAE framework that incorporates a classifier to infer the discrete class of the modeled data. To model sequential data, we can combine our Classifying VAE with a recurrent neural network such as an LSTM. We apply this model to algorithmic music generation, where our model learns to generate musical sequences in different keys. Most previous work in this area avoids modeling key by transposing data into only one or two keys, as opposed to the 10+ different keys in the original music. We show that our Classifying VAE and Classifying VAE+LSTM models outperform the corresponding non-classifying models in generating musical samples that stay in key. This benefit is especially apparent when trained on untransposed music data in the original keys.


From Artificial Neural Networks to Deep Learning for Music Generation -- History, Concepts and Trends

Apr 07, 2020
Jean-Pierre Briot

The current tsunami of deep learning (the hyper-vitamined return of artificial neural networks) applies not only to traditional statistical machine learning tasks: prediction and classification (e.g., for weather prediction and pattern recognition), but has already conquered other areas, such as translation. A growing area of application is the generation of creative content: in particular the case of music, the topic of this paper. The motivation is in using the capacity of modern deep learning techniques to automatically learn musical styles from arbitrary musical corpora and then to generate musical samples from the estimated distribution, with some degree of control over the generation. This article provides a survey of music generation based on deep learning techniques. After a short introduction to the topic illustrated by a recent exemple, the article analyses some early works from the late 1980s using artificial neural networks for music generation and how their pioneering contributions foreshadowed current techniques. Then, we introduce some conceptual framework to analyze the various concepts and dimensions involved. Various examples of recent systems are introduced and analyzed to illustrate the variety of concerns and of techniques.

* Open preliminary version of an article invited and under evaluation for a special issue on Arts in a Neural networks journal 

A Unit Selection Methodology for Music Generation Using Deep Neural Networks

Dec 12, 2016
Mason Bretan, Gil Weinberg, Larry Heck

Several methods exist for a computer to generate music based on data including Markov chains, recurrent neural networks, recombinancy, and grammars. We explore the use of unit selection and concatenation as a means of generating music using a procedure based on ranking, where, we consider a unit to be a variable length number of measures of music. We first examine whether a unit selection method, that is restricted to a finite size unit library, can be sufficient for encompassing a wide spectrum of music. We do this by developing a deep autoencoder that encodes a musical input and reconstructs the input by selecting from the library. We then describe a generative model that combines a deep structured semantic model (DSSM) with an LSTM to predict the next unit, where units consist of four, two, and one measures of music. We evaluate the generative model using objective metrics including mean rank and accuracy and with a subjective listening test in which expert musicians are asked to complete a forced-choiced ranking task. We compare our model to a note-level generative baseline that consists of a stacked LSTM trained to predict forward by one note.


The challenge of realistic music generation: modelling raw audio at scale

Jun 26, 2018
Sander Dieleman, Aäron van den Oord, Karen Simonyan

Realistic music generation is a challenging task. When building generative models of music that are learnt from data, typically high-level representations such as scores or MIDI are used that abstract away the idiosyncrasies of a particular performance. But these nuances are very important for our perception of musicality and realism, so in this work we embark on modelling music in the raw audio domain. It has been shown that autoregressive models excel at generating raw audio waveforms of speech, but when applied to music, we find them biased towards capturing local signal structure at the expense of modelling long-range correlations. This is problematic because music exhibits structure at many different timescales. In this work, we explore autoregressive discrete autoencoders (ADAs) as a means to enable autoregressive models to capture long-range correlations in waveforms. We find that they allow us to unconditionally generate piano music directly in the raw audio domain, which shows stylistic consistency across tens of seconds.

* 13 pages, 2 figures, submitted to NIPS 2018