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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

An Olfactory EEG Signal Classification Network Based on Frequency Band Feature Extraction

Feb 05, 2022
Biao Sun, Zhigang Wei, Pei Liang, Huirang Hou

Classification of olfactory-induced electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has shown great potential in many fields. Since different frequency bands within the EEG signals contain different information, extracting specific frequency bands for classification performance is important. Moreover, due to the large inter-subject variability of the EEG signals, extracting frequency bands with subject-specific information rather than general information is crucial. Considering these, the focus of this letter is to classify the olfactory EEG signals by exploiting the spectral-domain information of specific frequency bands. In this letter, we present an olfactory EEG signal classification network based on frequency band feature extraction. A frequency band generator is first designed to extract frequency bands via the sliding window technique. Then, a frequency band attention mechanism is proposed to optimize frequency bands for a specific subject adaptively. Last, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is constructed to extract the spatio-spectral information and predict the EEG category. Comparison experiment results reveal that the proposed method outperforms a series of baseline methods in terms of both classification quality and inter-subject robustness. Ablation experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of each component of the proposed method.

  

Business Document Information Extraction: Towards Practical Benchmarks

Jun 20, 2022
Matyáš Skalický, Štěpán Šimsa, Michal Uřičář, Milan Šulc

Information extraction from semi-structured documents is crucial for frictionless business-to-business (B2B) communication. While machine learning problems related to Document Information Extraction (IE) have been studied for decades, many common problem definitions and benchmarks do not reflect domain-specific aspects and practical needs for automating B2B document communication. We review the landscape of Document IE problems, datasets and benchmarks. We highlight the practical aspects missing in the common definitions and define the Key Information Localization and Extraction (KILE) and Line Item Recognition (LIR) problems. There is a lack of relevant datasets and benchmarks for Document IE on semi-structured business documents as their content is typically legally protected or sensitive. We discuss potential sources of available documents including synthetic data.

* Accepted to CLEF 2022 
  

Improving Channel Decorrelation for Multi-Channel Target Speech Extraction

Jun 06, 2021
Jiangyu Han, Wei Rao, Yannan Wang, Yanhua Long

Target speech extraction has attracted widespread attention. When microphone arrays are available, the additional spatial information can be helpful in extracting the target speech. We have recently proposed a channel decorrelation (CD) mechanism to extract the inter-channel differential information to enhance the reference channel encoder representation. Although the proposed mechanism has shown promising results for extracting the target speech from mixtures, the extraction performance is still limited by the nature of the original decorrelation theory. In this paper, we propose two methods to broaden the horizon of the original channel decorrelation, by replacing the original softmax-based inter-channel similarity between encoder representations, using an unrolled probability and a normalized cosine-based similarity at the dimensional-level. Moreover, new combination strategies of the CD-based spatial information and target speaker adaptation of parallel encoder outputs are also investigated. Experiments on the reverberant WSJ0 2-mix show that the improved CD can result in more discriminative differential information and the new adaptation strategy is also very effective to improve the target speech extraction.

* accepted to Interspeech 2021. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2010.09191 
  

Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Imagery: The Evolution from Shallow to Deep

Mar 06, 2020
Behnood Rasti, Danfeng Hong, Renlong Hang, Pedram Ghamisi, Xudong Kang, Jocelyn Chanussot, Jon Atli Benediktsson

Hyperspectral images provide detailed spectral information through hundreds of (narrow) spectral channels (also known as dimensionality or bands) with continuous spectral information that can accurately classify diverse materials of interest. The increased dimensionality of such data makes it possible to significantly improve data information content but provides a challenge to the conventional techniques (the so-called curse of dimensionality) for accurate analysis of hyperspectral images. Feature extraction, as a vibrant field of research in the hyperspectral community, evolved through decades of research to address this issue and extract informative features suitable for data representation and classification. The advances in feature extraction have been inspired by two fields of research, including the popularization of image and signal processing as well as machine (deep) learning, leading to two types of feature extraction approaches named shallow and deep techniques. This article outlines the advances in feature extraction approaches for hyperspectral imagery by providing a technical overview of the state-of-the-art techniques, providing useful entry points for researchers at different levels, including students, researchers, and senior researchers, willing to explore novel investigations on this challenging topic. In more detail, this paper provides a bird's eye view over shallow (both supervised and unsupervised) and deep feature extraction approaches specifically dedicated to the topic of hyperspectral feature extraction and its application on hyperspectral image classification. Additionally, this paper compares 15 advanced techniques with an emphasis on their methodological foundations in terms of classification accuracies. Furthermore, the codes and libraries are shared at https://github.com/BehnoodRasti/HyFTech-Hyperspectral-Shallow-Deep-Feature-Extraction-Toolbox.

  

Web Page Content Extraction Based on Multi-feature Fusion

Mar 21, 2022
Bowen Yu, Junping Du, Yingxia Shao

With the rapid development of Internet technology, people have more and more access to a variety of web page resources. At the same time, the current rapid development of deep learning technology is often inseparable from the huge amount of Web data resources. On the other hand, NLP is also an important part of data processing technology, such as web page data extraction. At present, the extraction technology of web page text mainly uses a single heuristic function or strategy, and most of them need to determine the threshold manually. With the rapid growth of the number and types of web resources, there are still problems to be solved when using a single strategy to extract the text information of different pages. This paper proposes a web page text extraction algorithm based on multi-feature fusion. According to the text information characteristics of web resources, DOM nodes are used as the extraction unit to design multiple statistical features, and high-order features are designed according to heuristic strategies. This method establishes a small neural network, takes multiple features of DOM nodes as input, predicts whether the nodes contain text information, makes full use of different statistical information and extraction strategies, and adapts to more types of pages. Experimental results show that this method has a good ability of web page text extraction and avoids the problem of manually determining the threshold.

  

Examining convolutional feature extraction using Maximum Entropy (ME) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for image classification

May 10, 2021
Nidhi Gowdra, Roopak Sinha, Stephen MacDonell

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) specialize in feature extraction rather than function mapping. In doing so they form complex internal hierarchical feature representations, the complexity of which gradually increases with a corresponding increment in neural network depth. In this paper, we examine the feature extraction capabilities of CNNs using Maximum Entropy (ME) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to validate the idea that, CNN models should be tailored for a given task and complexity of the input data. SNR and ME measures are used as they can accurately determine in the input dataset, the relative amount of signal information to the random noise and the maximum amount of information respectively. We use two well known benchmarking datasets, MNIST and CIFAR-10 to examine the information extraction and abstraction capabilities of CNNs. Through our experiments, we examine convolutional feature extraction and abstraction capabilities in CNNs and show that the classification accuracy or performance of CNNs is greatly dependent on the amount, complexity and quality of the signal information present in the input data. Furthermore, we show the effect of information overflow and underflow on CNN classification accuracies. Our hypothesis is that the feature extraction and abstraction capabilities of convolutional layers are limited and therefore, CNN models should be tailored to the input data by using appropriately sized CNNs based on the SNR and ME measures of the input dataset.

* Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON2020). IEEE Computer Society Press, pp.471-476 
* Conference paper, 6 pages, 1 table 
  

Fusion of Dual Spatial Information for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Oct 23, 2020
Puhong Duan, Pedram Ghamisi, Xudong Kang, Behnood Rasti, Shutao Li, Richard Gloaguen

The inclusion of spatial information into spectral classifiers for fine-resolution hyperspectral imagery has led to significant improvements in terms of classification performance. The task of spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification has remained challenging because of high intraclass spectrum variability and low interclass spectral variability. This fact has made the extraction of spatial information highly active. In this work, a novel hyperspectral image classification framework using the fusion of dual spatial information is proposed, in which the dual spatial information is built by both exploiting pre-processing feature extraction and post-processing spatial optimization. In the feature extraction stage, an adaptive texture smoothing method is proposed to construct the structural profile (SP), which makes it possible to precisely extract discriminative features from hyperspectral images. The SP extraction method is used here for the first time in the remote sensing community. Then, the extracted SP is fed into a spectral classifier. In the spatial optimization stage, a pixel-level classifier is used to obtain the class probability followed by an extended random walker-based spatial optimization technique. Finally, a decision fusion rule is utilized to fuse the class probabilities obtained by the two different stages. Experiments performed on three data sets from different scenes illustrate that the proposed method can outperform other state-of-the-art classification techniques. In addition, the proposed feature extraction method, i.e., SP, can effectively improve the discrimination between different land covers.

* 13 pages, 11 figures 
  

A General Framework for Information Extraction using Dynamic Span Graphs

Apr 05, 2019
Yi Luan, Dave Wadden, Luheng He, Amy Shah, Mari Ostendorf, Hannaneh Hajishirzi

We introduce a general framework for several information extraction tasks that share span representations using dynamically constructed span graphs. The graphs are constructed by selecting the most confident entity spans and linking these nodes with confidence-weighted relation types and coreferences. The dynamic span graph allows coreference and relation type confidences to propagate through the graph to iteratively refine the span representations. This is unlike previous multi-task frameworks for information extraction in which the only interaction between tasks is in the shared first-layer LSTM. Our framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art on multiple information extraction tasks across multiple datasets reflecting different domains. We further observe that the span enumeration approach is good at detecting nested span entities, with significant F1 score improvement on the ACE dataset.

* NAACL 2019 
  

Lithium NLP: A System for Rich Information Extraction from Noisy User Generated Text on Social Media

Jul 13, 2017
Preeti Bhargava, Nemanja Spasojevic, Guoning Hu

In this paper, we describe the Lithium Natural Language Processing (NLP) system - a resource-constrained, high- throughput and language-agnostic system for information extraction from noisy user generated text on social media. Lithium NLP extracts a rich set of information including entities, topics, hashtags and sentiment from text. We discuss several real world applications of the system currently incorporated in Lithium products. We also compare our system with existing commercial and academic NLP systems in terms of performance, information extracted and languages supported. We show that Lithium NLP is at par with and in some cases, outperforms state- of-the-art commercial NLP systems.

* 9 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables, EMNLP 2017 Workshop on Noisy User Generated Text WNUT 2017 
  
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