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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

COfEE: A Comprehensive Ontology for Event Extraction from text, with an online annotation tool

Jul 21, 2021
Ali Balali, Masoud Asadpour, Seyed Hossein Jafari

Data is published on the web over time in great volumes, but majority of the data is unstructured, making it hard to understand and difficult to interpret. Information Extraction (IE) methods extract structured information from unstructured data. One of the challenging IE tasks is Event Extraction (EE) which seeks to derive information about specific incidents and their actors from the text. EE is useful in many domains such as building a knowledge base, information retrieval, summarization and online monitoring systems. In the past decades, some event ontologies like ACE, CAMEO and ICEWS were developed to define event forms, actors and dimensions of events observed in the text. These event ontologies still have some shortcomings such as covering only a few topics like political events, having inflexible structure in defining argument roles, lack of analytical dimensions, and complexity in choosing event sub-types. To address these concerns, we propose an event ontology, namely COfEE, that incorporates both expert domain knowledge, previous ontologies and a data-driven approach for identifying events from text. COfEE consists of two hierarchy levels (event types and event sub-types) that include new categories relating to environmental issues, cyberspace, criminal activity and natural disasters which need to be monitored instantly. Also, dynamic roles according to each event sub-type are defined to capture various dimensions of events. In a follow-up experiment, the proposed ontology is evaluated on Wikipedia events, and it is shown to be general and comprehensive. Moreover, in order to facilitate the preparation of gold-standard data for event extraction, a language-independent online tool is presented based on COfEE.

  

Relation extraction between the clinical entities based on the shortest dependency path based LSTM

Mar 24, 2019
Dhanachandra Ningthoujam, Shweta Yadav, Pushpak Bhattacharyya, Asif Ekbal

Owing to the exponential rise in the electronic medical records, information extraction in this domain is becoming an important area of research in recent years. Relation extraction between the medical concepts such as medical problem, treatment, and test etc. is also one of the most important tasks in this area. In this paper, we present an efficient relation extraction system based on the shortest dependency path (SDP) generated from the dependency parsed tree of the sentence. Instead of relying on many handcrafted features and the whole sequence of tokens present in a sentence, our system relies only on the SDP between the target entities. For every pair of entities, the system takes only the words in the SDP, their dependency labels, Part-of-Speech information and the types of the entities as the input. We develop a dependency parser for extracting dependency information. We perform our experiments on the benchmark i2b2 dataset for clinical relation extraction challenge 2010. Experimental results show that our system outperforms the existing systems.

  

Span Based Open Information Extraction

Mar 01, 2019
Junlang Zhan, Hai Zhao

In this paper, we propose a span based model combined with syntactic information for n-ary open information extraction. The advantage of span model is that it can leverage span level features, which is difficult in token based BIO tagging methods. We also improve the previous bootstrap method to construct training corpus. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous open information extraction systems. Our code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/zhanjunlang/Span_OIE

* There is an error in this article. In section 2.2, we state that span level syntactic information is helpful for Open IE, which is one of major contribution of this paper. However, after our examination, there is a fatal error in the code for this part so the statement is not true 
  

WYSIWYE: An Algebra for Expressing Spatial and Textual Rules for Visual Information Extraction

Sep 27, 2016
Vijil Chenthamarakshan, Prasad M Desphande, Raghu Krishnapuram, Ramakrishna Varadarajan, Knut Stolze

The visual layout of a webpage can provide valuable clues for certain types of Information Extraction (IE) tasks. In traditional rule based IE frameworks, these layout cues are mapped to rules that operate on the HTML source of the webpages. In contrast, we have developed a framework in which the rules can be specified directly at the layout level. This has many advantages, since the higher level of abstraction leads to simpler extraction rules that are largely independent of the source code of the page, and, therefore, more robust. It can also enable specification of new types of rules that are not otherwise possible. To the best of our knowledge, there is no general framework that allows declarative specification of information extraction rules based on spatial layout. Our framework is complementary to traditional text based rules framework and allows a seamless combination of spatial layout based rules with traditional text based rules. We describe the algebra that enables such a system and its efficient implementation using standard relational and text indexing features of a relational database. We demonstrate the simplicity and efficiency of this system for a task involving the extraction of software system requirements from software product pages.

  

MAVE: A Product Dataset for Multi-source Attribute Value Extraction

Dec 16, 2021
Li Yang, Qifan Wang, Zac Yu, Anand Kulkarni, Sumit Sanghai, Bin Shu, Jon Elsas, Bhargav Kanagal

Attribute value extraction refers to the task of identifying values of an attribute of interest from product information. Product attribute values are essential in many e-commerce scenarios, such as customer service robots, product ranking, retrieval and recommendations. While in the real world, the attribute values of a product are usually incomplete and vary over time, which greatly hinders the practical applications. In this paper, we introduce MAVE, a new dataset to better facilitate research on product attribute value extraction. MAVE is composed of a curated set of 2.2 million products from Amazon pages, with 3 million attribute-value annotations across 1257 unique categories. MAVE has four main and unique advantages: First, MAVE is the largest product attribute value extraction dataset by the number of attribute-value examples. Second, MAVE includes multi-source representations from the product, which captures the full product information with high attribute coverage. Third, MAVE represents a more diverse set of attributes and values relative to what previous datasets cover. Lastly, MAVE provides a very challenging zero-shot test set, as we empirically illustrate in the experiments. We further propose a novel approach that effectively extracts the attribute value from the multi-source product information. We conduct extensive experiments with several baselines and show that MAVE is an effective dataset for attribute value extraction task. It is also a very challenging task on zero-shot attribute extraction. Data is available at {\it \url{https://github.com/google-research-datasets/MAVE}}.

* 10 pages, 7 figures. Accepted to WSDM 2022. Dataset available at https://github.com/google-research-datasets/MAVE 
  

COVID-19 Knowledge Graph: Accelerating Information Retrieval and Discovery for Scientific Literature

Jul 24, 2020
Colby Wise, Vassilis N. Ioannidis, Miguel Romero Calvo, Xiang Song, George Price, Ninad Kulkarni, Ryan Brand, Parminder Bhatia, George Karypis

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has claimed the lives of over 350,000 people and infected more than 6 million people worldwide. Several search engines have surfaced to provide researchers with additional tools to find and retrieve information from the rapidly growing corpora on COVID-19. These engines lack extraction and visualization tools necessary to retrieve and interpret complex relations inherent to scientific literature. Moreover, because these engines mainly rely upon semantic information, their ability to capture complex global relationships across documents is limited, which reduces the quality of similarity-based article recommendations for users. In this work, we present the COVID-19 Knowledge Graph (CKG), a heterogeneous graph for extracting and visualizing complex relationships between COVID-19 scientific articles. The CKG combines semantic information with document topological information for the application of similar document retrieval. The CKG is constructed using the latent schema of the data, and then enriched with biomedical entity information extracted from the unstructured text of articles using scalable AWS technologies to form relations in the graph. Finally, we propose a document similarity engine that leverages low-dimensional graph embeddings from the CKG with semantic embeddings for similar article retrieval. Analysis demonstrates the quality of relationships in the CKG and shows that it can be used to uncover meaningful information in COVID-19 scientific articles. The CKG helps power www.cord19.aws and is publicly available.

  

Renormalized Mutual Information for Extraction of Continuous Features

May 04, 2020
Leopoldo Sarra, Andrea Aiello, Florian Marquardt

We derive a well-defined renormalized version of mutual information that allows to estimate the dependence between continuous random variables in the important case when one is deterministically dependent on the other. This is the situation relevant for feature extraction and for information processing in artificial neural networks. We illustrate in basic examples how the renormalized mutual information can be used not only to compare the usefulness of different ansatz features, but also to automatically extract optimal features of a system in an unsupervised dimensionality reduction scenario.

  

An Ontology-Based Information Extraction System for Residential Land Use Suitability Analysis

Sep 16, 2021
Munira Al-Ageili, Malek Mouhoub

We propose an Ontology-Based Information Extraction (OBIE) system to automate the extraction of the criteria and values applied in Land Use Suitability Analysis (LUSA) from bylaw and regulation documents related to the geographic area of interest. The results obtained by our proposed LUSA OBIE system (land use suitability criteria and their values) are presented as an ontology populated with instances of the extracted criteria and property values. This latter output ontology is incorporated into a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) model applied for constructing suitability maps for different kinds of land uses. The resulting maps may be the final desired product or can be incorporated into the cellular automata urban modeling and simulation for predicting future urban growth. A case study has been conducted where the output from LUSA OBIE is applied to help produce a suitability map for the City of Regina, Saskatchewan, to assist in the identification of suitable areas for residential development. A set of Saskatchewan bylaw and regulation documents were downloaded and input to the LUSA OBIE system. We accessed the extracted information using both the populated LUSA ontology and the set of annotated documents. In this regard, the LUSA OBIE system was effective in producing a final suitability map.

* 17 pages, 18 figures 
  

A Unified Framework of Medical Information Annotation and Extraction for Chinese Clinical Text

Mar 08, 2022
Enwei Zhu, Qilin Sheng, Huanwan Yang, Jinpeng Li

Medical information extraction consists of a group of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, which collaboratively convert clinical text to pre-defined structured formats. Current state-of-the-art (SOTA) NLP models are highly integrated with deep learning techniques and thus require massive annotated linguistic data. This study presents an engineering framework of medical entity recognition, relation extraction and attribute extraction, which are unified in annotation, modeling and evaluation. Specifically, the annotation scheme is comprehensive, and compatible between tasks, especially for the medical relations. The resulted annotated corpus includes 1,200 full medical records (or 18,039 broken-down documents), and achieves inter-annotator agreements (IAAs) of 94.53%, 73.73% and 91.98% F 1 scores for the three tasks. Three task-specific neural network models are developed within a shared structure, and enhanced by SOTA NLP techniques, i.e., pre-trained language models. Experimental results show that the system can retrieve medical entities, relations and attributes with F 1 scores of 93.47%, 67.14% and 90.89%, respectively. This study, in addition to our publicly released annotation scheme and code, provides solid and practical engineering experience of developing an integrated medical information extraction system.

* 31 pages, 5 figures 
  
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